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  the whirling mountain of the navajos  
 
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Where did you come out from my Children?
From yonder, where the Whirling Mountain stands.

Navajo Shooting Chant

introduction

The Navajos are the most populous of all surviving Indian nations in the USA. They comprise about 100,000 individuals, and inhabit New Mexico, Arizona and Utah. The Navajo Indians are close of kin to the Apaches and were, as these, deeply influenced by the more civilized, agrarian Pueblo Indians. Under this influence, the Navajos adopted a sedentary existence, based on agriculture and, later, in the herding of goats, sheep and cattle.

The Pueblo Indians instructed the Navajos and the Apaches not only in agriculture, but also in the arts, crafts and religion. Navajo pottery and their famous rugs derive their design from that of the Pueblos. So do their silver smithing and, above all, their remarkable sand paintings, which we will be discussing in some depth.

In the present chapter we analyze, to a certain detail, one of the main myths of the Navajo Indians, that of the Twins. We show its unequivocal connection with certain myths of the Old World, particularly those of India and Indonesia. Moreover, we interpret this myth in detail, showing that it is indeed an allegorical exposition of the myth of Paradise and its secret whereabouts. This Paradise is no other thing than Eden or Atlantis, the original homeland of Mankind and Civilization, as will become clear from the present discussion.

It should be understood that the Indians are very reluctant to speak of these matters openly, particularly to strangers, as they are part of the secret of their Mysteries. The Indians prefer to maintain the mystery that involves their origins in Eden, perhaps in order to preserve their claim to autochthonicity, as a way to guarantee, perhaps for the future, the legitimacy of their claim on the ground stolen from them by the whites. But I am quite sure that the elders of their communities will agree with our interpretation of their myths, even so they are perhaps preventing from saying so in the open. The reason I am divulging their secrets for the profanes is because I feel the time has come for the return of the Golden Age, despite the considerable occult forces that oppose this long-awaited event. And this divulgation is part of the change.

As such, their stories are only told as myth, often utterly incomprehensible to all but the initiates and usually ridiculous and misleading. In fact, such is usually the case with most such traditions everywhere. In the modern religions, these metaphors are usually pseudo-historicized, and most believers are made to believe their historicity, even though the events told are quite impossible in a natural way. Paradoxically enough, this type of person — so well-trained they are — will stolidly refuse to believe in the reality of the Terrestrial Paradise from where the Indians come to have come, while all the time accepting as an established fact the reality of the Celestial Paradise which the Indians well know to be a sheer metaphor for the real thing.

We are of the opinion — after having researched the matter for quite a long time now — that the real reason behind the scientific theory that holds the autochthonism of the Amerinds was, and perhaps still is, part of a concerted effort to deny them their humanity and the divine origin that the whites claim for themselves. With this the conquistadors and the Bandeirantes — as well as their counterparts elsewhere — were justified in plundering the land and the possessions of the natives, as they did, and in enslaving them, all in the name of Religion.

So, while the white missionaries thumped the Bible, attempting to convert the Amerinds forcefully, with the menace of all too real bonfires, they opened the way for the soldier and the colonists who would rob the natives of everything, inclusive their very humanity. Of course, this missionary and civilizatory influence would not be needed if the natives partook of the very same Tradition, the Primordial Religion and culture that came to us from Paradise, brought by the angels themselves, in the dawn of times. So, the modern anthropologists who cling to the view that Civilization developed independently from the Old World in the Americas are but the legitimate heirs of this ancient tradition, which they defend irrationally, despite all sorts of compelling contrary evidence.

the religion of the navajos

The Navajo religious system is intricate. Like most Amerindian nations, they claim to have come from a subterranean world through caves or vents that connect with this upper world. Theirs is a Mystery Religion based on Drug Cults (Peyotism), on shamanism, and on amuletic songs, dances, design and rituals. But the idea of a subterranean Creation — one in which Mankind somehow originated underground and later ascended to this earth in some manner — is peculiar not only to the Navajos, but to most Indian nations of the three Americas.

As a matter of fact, this conception of a subterranean Paradise whence Mankind sprung into the present era coming from a former one was also widespread in the Ancient World as well. For instance, Civilizing Heroes such as Osiris, Serapis, Mithras and several others originally rose from a cave or a subterranean abode, more or less in the way that Christ too did the same when he rose from among the dead, returning from Hades. In fact, Hades and other such netherworlds are nothing but Atlantis itself, buried underground and rendered infernal when the sky collapsed, falling over its head.

This cave or tomb is also the Primordial Cave, the Cave of Archetypes of which Plato tells us in his dialogues. It is the Pacari-tambu of the Incas, and the Cave of Illusion so masterfully described in the Ramayana. In fact, this cave is no other than the sunken, submarine realm of Atlantis-Eden, as we just said. Again, the Polynesians also claim to have come originally from a sunken island or continent which they called by names such as Hawaiki (or Javaiki), which mean something like "Sunken Grove" or "Destroyed Land", that is, the same as the sunken Garden of Eden. And, as we argue elsewhere, the Polynesian Paradise, just as all others indeed lay in the submerged portion of primordial Indonesia.

[Footnote: The name of Hawaii derives from that of Hawaiki or Jawaiki, the sunken continent which was the primordial homeland of the Hawaiians and other Polynesians. As we argue in detail elsewhere [Link to article: The Origin of the Polynesians], the Polynesians originally came from Indonesia, perhaps via Taiwan and Melanesia. This place they called Jawa or Hawa, a name derived from the one of Java, the name of these islands in antiquity and even now. The name of Java refers to "wheat" or "barley" and, perhaps, "rice". What this means is that agriculture was invented there, as it indeed was. The name was later extended to the white races (Aryans) which originated there, before they moved out to China and Mongolia, and then to north and west Asia, Europe included. And it also refers to Hawwa (Eve), the Great Mother who mpersons the Aryans and their homeland. On their way east, the Polynesians mingled with the Melanesians, becoming darker in the process, though originally white. The scientific evidence we gathered comes from all fields: genetics, agricultural, mythical, cultural, etc.. It is so impressive that it is hard to reject on valid scientific grounds.]

the dual creations

Throughout the whole world, traditions tell of two basic types of Creation Myths. In one, the Ancestors fall down from Heaven above, and civilize the semi-bestial humans, with whom they breed the new humanity. In the other, as with the Amerinds, the Ancestors come from the Netherworld, and effect what amounts to a second Creation which is in all respects the dual of the former one.

This dual Creation and, indeed, Dualism in general, derives from Hinduism and seems to form the base and essence of the Urreligion ("Primordial Religion") postulated by certain anthropologists of note. We encounter this Dual Creation even in the Book of Genesis. There, the first Creation — attributed to Elohim — is told in chapter 1 of that book, whereas the second one, attributed to Jahveh, is narrated in chapter 2, as the reader can verify for himself.

The language in both passages is (purposefully) obscure, but is unmistakably dual. The god of Gen.1, Elohim is clearly Celestial. But the one of Gen.2, Jahveh, starts his Creation from below, as "the mist that came up from under the earth". In other words, the spirit ("mist") of God ascends from below, together with the subterranean waters and, certainly, followed by his hosts (or people), much in the manner of the Indians.

the earth-diver

In several Cosmogonies, we have the so called "Earth-Diver" fetching the earth from under the seas, in contrast to the Fallen Sun that drops from the skies down to earth, as an avatar of the Celestial God. The archetype of the Earth Diver is Vishnu, in his Boar avatar (Varaha). The one of the Fallen Sun is, again, derived from a Hindu archetype; that of Vishvasvat, the Sun, and his many aliases. Both of these Cosmogonic motifs date from Vedic times in India, and there can be no question of Hindu precedence.

As we said above, the Navajos learnt their Mystery Religion from Pueblo Indians such as the Zuñi of New Mexico. The Zuñi in turn relate to the Aztecs and the Mayas of Mexico, whose advanced civilization is well-known. This diffusion of civilization can be traced further back to the Incas of Peru and, across the Pacific Ocean, all the way to Indonesia and to India.

the pueblos and the architecture of çatal huyuk

It is sufficient to compare the unique pueblo constructions of the Pueblo Indians with those of Çatal Huyuk, in Anatolia, or those of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, to conclude that they were undoubtedly built (or designed) by the one and same people (see Fig.1 below). The pueblos are, like their Old World counterparts, a sort of human "beehive" in which the individual apartments form "cells" destitute of doors and windows.

The only access is through the roof, by means of a manhole and ladder. In case of attack, the ladders could be withdrawn, and the "city" became an impregnable fortress. Çatal Huyuk has been dated at 9,000 years ago, and is one of the oldest known cities. Burial methods, the advanced agriculture, bull-worship and the cult of the Great Mother, and several other similarities further testify to an ancient connection among these distant sites.

Indeed, the sun-dried mud bricks — fired when firewood was available — lead us to think of Adam, made of the same stuff. Zuñi mythology depicts their ancestors actually emerging from the underground mud in Paradise and immigrating to their present location.

atlantis, eden and the seven golden cities of cibola

Fig.1(a) - A Comparison of (a) the North American Pueblos and (b) Çatal Huyuk (click to enlarge)The Pueblos were early associated by the Spaniards with the Seven Golden Cities of Cibola and with the legend of the Eldorado.[LINK: to my article on Pueblo Indians] And these are, as we argue elsewhere, the same as the Seven Islands of the Blest, which are no other than the sunken Eden of the Judeo-Christians. The name of the Golden Cities of Cibola very obviously came from the Dravida civ-pola, meaning "golden city" or, yet, "city of the reds". It is interesting to note that "Reds" or "Golden" are usual epithets of the Atlanteans. Adam too was a "Red", that is, a Chamite, as his name (means "red") unequivocally indicates.

Fig.1(b) - A Comparison of (a) the North American Pueblos and (b) Çatal Huyuk (click to enlarge)Moreover, the number seven attached to the cities of Cibola is also the one of the Isles of the Blest and similar sunken realms of the ancients. In fact, the number alludes to the seven great islands of Indonesia: Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, Philippines, New Guinea and the Malay Peninsula, which the ancients counted as an island.

We recall that the fundamental rule of the science of symbolism is that a symbol or a convention cannot be invoked to explain the origin of another symbol, for this just transfers the problem. So, the sacredness of the number seven — the holiest number of the Hindus — can only derive from their seven Dvipas or Paradises, that is, from precisely the above islands. Can you think of another sacred seven that is not purely conventional in origin?

The Spaniards mistook the Americas — which they later called West Indies — for the East Indies, which they knew to be the site of Paradise and, hence, of the fabled Seven Golden Cities of Cibola. Cibola, "the Golden City", is just one of the many names of Lemurian Atlantis. The name of "Seven Golden Cities" or "Seven Golden Islands" was applied by the ancients to the Indonesian islands, and to no other place. [LINK: My article (to choose) on Mythical Islands of the Atlantic, etc.]This name is indeed a translation of the Sanskrit Suvarna-dvipa, which gave the Greek Chryse Chersonesos and the Latin Aurea Chersonesus, all meaning the same thing as "Golden City" or "Golden Island".

the twins and the great mother

The Navajos trace descent through the mother, and their families centers around the grandmother. This is another evidence of their cult of the Great Mother, which is a feature of Dravidian Hinduism. The Navajo rites, chants and dances are based entirely on the characters, incidents and places of their mythology and ritual designs. The dancers wear masks and dresses according to exacting standards, and impersonate the gods and heroes (Kachina) of their mythology.

Foremost among these ancestral heroes of the Navajos are the Twins, the sons of Sun and Earth-Mother. These Twins are also called "Little War-Gods", a name which closely evokes the one of the Hindu Ashvin Twins and, more exactly, the two brothers Skanda and Ganesha, respectively the generalissimos of the gods and of the devils in Hindu mythology.

The Twins free the earth from all sorts of monsters, creating order out of the prevalent chaos. The Navajo Twins closely correspond to the ones of the Pueblo Indians and those of the Mayas and even the ones of the Indians of South America. Indeed, the Navajo Twins are the counterparts of the many twins of the Old World, pairs like Castor and Pollux, Atlas and Gadeiros, as well as the Ashvin Twins of Vedic India. In all cases the function of these Twins was ridding the world of monsters and pests, including diseases and vermin. This is true on both sides of the world. Hence, it is naive to think that such perfect correspondences can be the result of chancy coincidences, as they are too perfect for that. It is only the generalized ignorance of these traditions that allows the enduring of the foolish theories which prevail among the academics who generally believe that these civilizations developed in total isolation from each other.

A close comparison of these and other mythological personages reveals the fact that Amerindian religion is very much the same all over the three Americas, particularly insofar as their Cosmogony is implied.[LINK: to my article on Mayan and Aztec Religion] However, as is so often the case with the oppressed races, the Indians disguise their true religion under a heavy veil of allegories and symbolisms that have to be deciphered before the underlying unity and purpose become evident. Even in this regards, the religion of the Amerindians closely parallels the Mystery Religions of the Old World, whose secret contents was never divulged to the profanes, particularly if these belong to the despicable white races they so hated, for very good reasons.

djos y ley, the archetypal twins

Frequently, the Navajo own gods are synchretized to the alien deities and saints, despite the fact that they are indeed their duals. For instance, the Pueblo Indians disguised their Twins, during Spanish dominion, under the characters of Djos and Ley. These two are characters akin to the Trickster, and figure in vulgar tales tending to the fescenine.

In fact, their names are corruptions of the Spanish Dios and Rey ("God" and "King") and embody the two types of divine authority that we encounter the world over. These two types correspond to the powers the Hindu impersonated in Mitra and Varuna, as so amply discussed by Prof. G. Dumézil. Mitra ("twin") is the Solar Twin, and personifies Royalty (Ley), much as Varuna is the Lunar Twin who corresponds to Magic and Religion (Djos).

The Twins personify, everywhere, the two races of Man, from which all humans arose. The junior (or lesser) twin is often likened to a woman, and is dominated by his elder twin. Sometimes they are made into a Male and a Female and their role is switched as the eras alternate. The Twins are often likened to the Sun (or Sky) and the Earth (or Hell), which are esteemed to be their parents.

With the Barasana Indians of the Brazilian Amazon jungle, the Twins are substituted by the Primordial Couple. These two consist of Jurupari and Romi Kumu. Romi Kumu somehow lost his/her phallus, and became the Great Mother, just as Jurupari, the Great Father, also lost his own, in a later occasion. But in many other South American nations, the male (or androgynous) character of the Twins is preserved, with one of them dominant, and the other one dominated and effeminate, often a castrate.

These two Primordial Castrates closely evoke the ones of Greek mythology (Ouranos and Kronos), themselves copied from Brahma and Shiva, their Hindu archetypes. When one pauses to reflect, it is difficult not to realize the common origin of these mythologies somewhere. And when one thinks even harder, it is easy to see that this origin can only have been in the East Indies, whence we all came from, in the dawn of times. In fact, the myth of the Twins and of the Primordial Castration actually refers to the eruption of the twin volcanoes of Indonesia, the Krakatoa and the Toba,[LINK to site article: the Origin of the Seven Sacraments] the true archetypes of the two Pillars of Hercules. These explosive eruptions resulted in the destruction of Paradise, and the consequent diaspora of their former dwellers to the different parts of the world, the Promised Lands where they would attempt to rebuild their Paradise Lost.

the twins as fire and water

More exactly, the Navajo Twins are, respectively, like their Hindu counterparts, the children of the Sun and Water by the Earth Mother. Again this dualism is of Hindu origin, and the Sun is indeed Agni (the Fiery Principle), whereas the Water corresponds to Indra or Varuna (the Watery Principle). Vedic mythology is extremely difficult to penetrate. But it is possible to show that Mitra ("twin") is really an epithet of Indra (ind = "water"), whereas Varuna is really the Celestial (or Sun) god fallen down into the Ocean.

When this reversal of roles happened, Varuna was degraded and descended to the bottom of the seas, trading role with his Twin (Mitra), that ascended to Heaven. In fact, the two gods represent the two volcanoes just mentioned, the Toba and the Krakatoa, as well as the cataclysms they cause, by Fire and Water. Fire stands for the volcanic conflagrations and, more exactly, the nuées ardentes they cause, whereas Water symbolizes the giant tsunamis caused by the explosive eruptions of submarine volcanoes such as the Krakatoa. This phenomenon in all probability caused the end of the Pleistocene Ice Age by means of the so-called Heinrich Events and others, as we argue elsewhere in detail. [LINK: to my article: Volcanoes - Internet]

The Navajos and the Apaches express their religion in the ritual dances and chants of the whole community. These ceremonies are intended to reestablish Cosmic Order and, hence, bring back health to the sick; rains to the crops; game to the hunters, etc.. They also drive away the evil spirits that disturb Cosmic Harmony, and invite in the good ones that foster it. All their arts are combined in the rituals: the elaborate poetry of the chants; the mythical geography; the beautiful masks and feather headdresses; the deep symbolism of the intricate sand paintings and, finally, the spectacular dancing of the actors who wear the godly regalia.

Both the Apache and the Navajos call the Twins by names such as "Killer-of-Enemy Gods" and "Child-of-the-Waters". These names are shared by the other Athabascan-speaking peoples. The name of "Child of the Waters" apparently derives directly from the one of the Hindu god called Apam Napat, which means precisely the same thing in Sanskrit. Apam Napat is an alias of Varuna, the Vedic archetype of Poseidon and Neptune. And Agni is the fiery avatar of Shiva, often called by names such as "Killer of the Enemy Gods" in his terrible avatars such as Yamantaka ("Killer of Yama"), etc.. In other words, Amerindian Religion in general, and the one of the Navajos in particular, directly derives from Hinduism.

The enemy gods are the monsters that inhabited primordial earth, and which rendered it unfit for human occupation before they were exterminated by the Twins. Most such monsters are cannibals like Big Owl and Kicker-off-the-rocks. Child-of-the-Waters is the junior twin; the helper of his elder bother. His name is a direct translation of that of the Hindu Apam-Napat, himself an alias of Skanda, the Hindu War-god. These two should be compared to the Twin War Gods of the Pueblo Indians, as commented above.

the exploits of the twins

Navajo mythology hinges on the exploits of the Twins in their quest of the mythical Center of Origin, the Paradise they identify with the Whirling Mountain at the Center of the World. In certain versions, this Paradise was reached by a man who went down the Colorado River inside a hollow log. This myth can be understood in the light of similar South American Indian myths. The hollow log is really a giant serpent (Anaconda) which is a sort of submarine, inside which they came out from their underwater primordial abode. In other words, the hollow log is an alias of the Ark, which is often likened to a giant serpent both in the New and the Old Worlds.

South American Indian mythology is presently far more complete than that of the North American Indians, for down here many tribes still survive in their pristine state, and have not yet been acculturated or eliminated by the missionaries and other white influences. But an in depth study of South American mythology clearly displays a fundamental identity with that of their northern brothers, particularly insofar as the myths of origin are concerned.

the death and resurrection of wiyot

The Pueblo Indians and the Luiseños turned migrants in imitation of the Twins. They thus attempted to reach the Center of the Earth where their god, Wiyot, had hidden himself after he died. Wiyot was the first of all men to die. And his death taught his people the example. In fact, Wiyot later resurrected as the New Moon, and became immortal.

The example of Wiyot is literally copied from the Hindu one of Yama ("twin"). Yama is an alias of Varuna as the lesser of the two Twins. Indeed, the stories of both Wiyot and Yama anticipate that of Christ, who died and resurrected in order to teach his worshippers that it can be done in practice. The death and resurrection of Wiyot is an instance of those of the so-called Vegetation Gods of the Old World. To this famous confraternity also belong gods and heroes such as Tammuz, Attis, Adonis, Agdistis, King Arthur, Hercules, and, of course, Jesus Christ, Osiris and Dionysos.

Actually, these myths all derive from the famous Hindu one of Yama and Yamantaka, the twins who are themselves the personifications of Death (Yama) and the Defeater of Death (Yamantaka). What the story of Wiyot is indeed telling is that the elder, the Solar Twin, dies and resurrects as the lesser one, the Lunar Twin. In other words, what we have here is the alternance of the eras and that of the ruling and ruled races with the passage of time.

Even Plato seemed to believe in this concept, as he held that we are sequentially born as males and females (i.e. Solar and Lunar), in successive metempsychoses. Apparently, victims and oppressors also change places. As one philosophical Indian once said: "When we were on top, we stepped on the necks of the whites. Now they're on top, and it is their turn to step on ours instead."

the primordial migration

The migrations of the Luiseños, the Apaches and the Pueblos, recall the identical ones of the Tupi-Guarani Indians of Brazil. Even before the Portuguese arrived here, they knew their world was doomed. So, they started migrating to the coast, awaiting for the Saviour that would lead them safely across the Ocean, just as Moses, Christ, and other such Tirthankaras ("Ford-makers" or, rather, "Saviours") had done in Primordial times.

This mass migration precipitated the downfall of the once mighty Tupi-Guarani nation. Out of their own bases, these Indians became an easy prey for the Portuguese invaders, who cornered them against the seas, and killed them off through starvation and purposefully spread diseases such as smallpox and syphilis. All this is more or less what happened in North America, except that in a far larger scale there, where the genocide was conducted by the government itself.

The pungent story of the Tupi-Guarani migrations in quest of their Paradise, Yvymaraney (or "evil-less land"), is one of the most touching dramas of the Amerindian saga in the three Americas. We have told this sad story elsewhere, and will not return to it here. Suffice it to say that the pilgrimages in quest of Paradise and the Holy Land are perhaps the most prevalent of religious rituals in the world. [LINK to site article: the Origin of the Seven Sacraments].

Pilgrimages are done by the Hindus and the Arabs, as well as by the Jews and the Christians alike. Pilgrimages are a sort of ritual return to Paradise. Phony heroes seek to return to phony, purely spiritual Paradises, whereas true Heroes like Alexander, Aeneas, Ulysses, Osiris, Hercules, Dionysos and Gilgamaseh seek for the true site of the Terrestrial Paradise. And this they invariably do, just as their New World counterparts, by crossing to the Indies, as we can read in the ancient sagas, once they are correctly interpreted, in the way we expound elsewhere. [LINK: to my article on The Itinerary of the Heroes]

The first Europeans in America emphasized the differences and the "savagery" of the Amerinds as an excuse to force them into submission and slavery, and in order to be granted royal and papal permission to steal their land and property and to disorganize their nations and their religion so as to make that endeavor easier. Thus deprived of their values, the acculturated Indians became an easy prey of the bestial conquistadors, the robber-barons and the colonists who inevitably follow the missionaries everywhere they show up among the primitives.

You know how it is: send the missionaries first. If they fail in the task of destroying the social structures of the natives and in "converting" them — a sure sign of their pact with the Devil — send in the soldiers and punish the rebellious savages, and to force them into complying. Once their culture and their religion and social structure are disrupted, send in the colonists to take away their land, their property and even their very humanity, through enslavement and sheer genocide. Look into History, and you will see that this sad reality is the rule rather than the exception everywhere the white races have come in contact with our darker brothers in this wide world of ours. And, in more ways than one, the present pseudoscientific paradigm that Amerindian civilizations developed autochthonously (and hence outside Christ's redemption) is an outgrowth of the conquistador spirit surviving in disguise inside the Church and the Academia.

the meaning of drug cults

 

The North American Indians have a form of Holy Communion known as Peyotism. This form of cult is widespread and uses a hallucinogen drug called peyote or mezcal, brewed from the buttons of a cactus. Similar drug cults based on this type of communion exist all over the Americas, the Amazon region included, where it is known as Santo Dayme. The Indians claim that there are two forms of communion, one made of white bread for the Whites, and one made of ruddy drugs such as peyote for the Reds. [Link to: site article on: Origin of Seven Sacraments]

Like the Luiseños and the Mezcalero Apaches, the Pueblos and the Navajos also often adhere to Drug Cults. These are based on hallucinogens such as the sacred mushroom, the peyote and the mezcal. Indeed, most Indians use one type or another of drug-induced ecstasy, in order to enhance their mystical union with God. Even today, all sorts of Drug Cults exist in way or another all over the Americas, despite their ferocious persecution by the white authorities, who deem them a threat to their authority. And this is indeed a fact, since drug cults are a way to stick to the old Amerindian values.

Such was also the original purpose of the Holy Communion of the Christians, [LINK TO: Article on site: Origin of the Seven Sacraments] where wine (a hallucinogen) substitutes for other drugs. All such rituals ultimately derive from the Soma rituals of the Hindus, as many specialists have recognized. Soma was prepared from many plants such as hemp, mezcal, mushrooms, asclepias, opium, etc., as well as from animal poisons obtained from toads and snakes. It is of course no coincidence that the Christian Communion is also made in two species, bread and wine. And these two species, one white (bread), the other red (wine), in fact symbolize the two races from which the two moieties of Atlantis were composed.

[FOOTNOTE: As we explained above, the name of the Yavanas (or Aryans) derives from the Skt., and generally means "grain", wheat or barley or perhaps rice. This is connected with the Great Mother (Hawwa) and with the sunken continent in Indonesia (Hawaiki or Javaiki), formerly called Java, like its insular remainder. So, the roasted wheat (bread) represents the Aryans and, even more literally, the fact that they were charred by the volcanic conflagration. This is why they were later named Ethiopians ("Burnt Faces") and Chams ("Flaming, Fiery"), and became associated with the red color, their heraldic attribution, even in the Americas.

Their ruddy color (redheads) also helped. In fact, the Yavanas comprised all Aryo-Semites, and included peoples such as the Tocharians, the Phoenicians, the Amorites, whose names mean "red". When they parted company, after the Great War of Atlantis, one moiety became the Aryo-Semites ("whites") and the other one became the Dravidas ("reds"). One moiety worshipped the Great Mother (Hawwa, Java, Jahveh = Javanas = "White") and the other one the Great Father (Adam = Edom = "Red"). They also divided the world between themselves, the Eastern Hemisphere to the Reds, the Western Hemisphere to the Whites, a covenant which prevailed until the unfortunate "discovery" of Christopher Columbus, bent on christianizing the Indians while alleviating them of their life and property.]

Drug cults were generalized in the whole ancient world as well, as archaeological research is unequivocally uncovering. Even the Egyptians were apparently addicted to such rituals. A recent study of several Egyptian mummies by the meticulous Germans unmistakably revealed that the Egyptian pharaohs routinely used drugs such as hemp, opium, tobacco and coca. Now, hemp is an Indian plant, whereas tobacco and coca are of South American origin. So, this evidence unmistakably shows the existence, in prehistoric times, of a somewhat intensive trade between the Americas and the Old World, one which also included the Far East and, apparently, Oceania as well.

Opium was usually produced in the Near East and the Far East, and was relatively easy to obtain, for instance via the Silk Road. But what this remarkable research unequivocally discloses is the existence of an ancient international naval trade in drugs and medicines (and other goods as well) throughout the entire world, and encompassing principally the East Indies and the Americas in its routes. This traffic was of course kept secret for various reasons, one such being the need to keep the competition away.

Another often-used hallucinogenic drug is datura or jimson. This is also called loco-weed or thorn-apple (Datura stramonium). The datura is common to both the Old and the New World, and is also widely used in India for the same ritual purposes as in the Americas. Jimsonweed is particularly popular among the Chungichmich of Southern California, and is much used in initiatic rituals involving nagualism and shamanism. It is clear that the habit of using datura in drug cults somehow passed, at a very remote date, from the East Indies, where it originated, to the distant Americas. Not impossibly the plant, a pest, was brought from the East, and spread in the Americas like a plague.

Peyotism is based on the peyote (or mezcal) cactus (Lophophora williamsii), native to Mexico. In the US, Peyote is eaten in a communal meal that closely resembles the Holy Communion of the Christians, which it apparently parallels. Indeed, modern Peyote religion actually claims that Christ instituted the "White Communion" to Whites and the Peyote (or "Red") Communion to the Reds. Interestingly enough, the ancient Hindus also spoke of two similar types of Soma Communion, one "red" (or "golden" or "Solar"), and the other "white" (or "silvery" or "Lunar"). And so did the Essenians and other Gnostics, who often engaged in drug rituals, often orgiastic and generally based on the Sacred Mushroom (Amanita muscaria).

Peyotism has been forbidden or, at least, persecuted, since early times in the Americas. In 1620, the Inquisidor General of New Spain forbid the use of peyote by all Christians, a fact that meant that those caught in the practice were not Christians and, hence, liable to prosecution and burning-at-stake for heresy or witchcraft or both. As recently as the late 1960s, Peyotism was still outlawed in several regions of the United States of America.

The name of the peyote derives from the Nahuatl peyotl meaning "divine messenger", which is more or less synonymous with "Angel (or Envoy) of the Lord". In other words, Peyote is the "Christ", the Messiah (or Emissary) sent down to the Indians as the Celestial Messenger, the bearer of the Good News of the Gospels. More exactly, the god Peyotl is the Third Coming of the Saviour so ardently expected by the Gnostics and the Mystics everywhere, the Troubadours and the Knights Templar in particular. When he comes, shortly, he shall bring the Celestial Bread to all humans, the white one to the Whites, and the red one to the Reds, in fair, equal shares for all of us humans.1

the great mother, venus and nagualism

In Navajo mythology, the Great Mother is called Changing Woman. Changing Woman represents the Earth. And her name refers to the idea that our planet periodically sloughs off its old skin (the crust) like a serpent, being reborn as fresh and virginal as a young bride. This motif is ritually enacted in Navajo dances and chants of an initiatic character. We find a similar belief in the Old World, for instance in the myth of Hera and the periodic renewal of her peplos or vest, as told by Pherecides of Syros and other Greek mythographers. Even the motif of the serpent shedding its old skin is widespread in the Old World and is told, for instance, in the Epic of Gilgamesh, among many.

This periodic renewal of the world is connected not only with the daily or the yearly ones, but with the eras of humanity dictated by the Precession of the Equinoxes, according to a widespread belief. In other words, Changing Woman is the same as the Nagis ("Serpent Women") of the Hindus, and her myriad counterparts such as Mélusine, Kokilan, Ganga, the Queen of Sheba, Echidna, etc. All of these goddesses symbolize the renewed earth, purified by the recurrent cataclysms which periodically ravage the earth, leading to new geological eras, in an unending succession. It is in this sense that they are often represented as snakes, due to the fact that these animals shed their old skins, and become, at least in myth, rejuvenated in the process, more or less like the serpent of the Epic of Gilgamesh.

[Footnote to insert here: Interestingly enough, the Ice Ages are believed, by scientists such as geologists and climatologists, to be dictated by the Precession of the Equinoxes and other similar astronomical phenomena, via the so-called Milankovitch Theory. Did the ancients (Atlanteans?) perhaps guess the same things as our scientists do, in their obsessive attachment to long range phenomena such as the Precession of the Equinoxes, which they managed to measure with an amazing accuracy both in the New and the Old World, for instance in Egypt and in Mexico? In fact, the coming and going of Ice Ages seems to be dictated by geological phenomena such as volcanism, as we argue in detail elsewhere [LINK: to my article: Volcanoes - Internet]. So, if real, the connection between Ice Ages and astronomical ephemerides such as the ones just mentioned is at best flimsy, and has not been unequivocally determined so far by anyone.]

As is clear, Changing Woman is also Venus, reborn afresh from the froth and blood of the castrated phallus of Ouranos thrown down into the Ocean's waters by Kronos. Indeed, as we argue elsewhere, Venus is the alias or replica of the Hindu goddess Lakshmi (also called Shri), from whom her myth was copied by the Greeks, in remotest antiquity. Shri was born, exactly like Aphrodite-Venus, from the froth engendered at the occasion of the Churning of the Ocean of Milk. This froth was generated in consequence of the dispute between the gods an the devils (devas and asuras) for possession of the Elixir of Life, the Soma.

To put it simply, all these myths allegorize the earth as a woman of a somewhat fickle, unpredictable temperament, more or less like explosive volcanoes. When she is calm, she is a loving mother, bountiful and often prodigal. When she gets enraged, however, she explodes, and may even swallow her children and her lovers, as many goddesses have done. In fact, the above snake-goddesses like Mélusine are all lamias and she-vampires, and hence extremely dangerous. But when she bathes herself (in the Flood), she becomes beautiful again, and quite calm, and resumes her normal self. As is clear, the myth of the prodigal earth which devours its own children (Num. 13:32; 16:30), the one of Eden, as the passage states, is a land full of volcanoes, like the one of Indonesia, where these fearful geological features abound.

[Footnote to insert here: The idea seems to be the one of the earth opening up in a giant chasm, like the giant calderas of the Toba volcano or the Krakatoa. This event is often allegorized as the Primordial Castration, as we already argued. In fact, the Bible is full of allusions to events which can only be interpreted as explosive volcanisms such as the ones typical of Indonesia. One masterful description is the one of Joel 2:1. Here, a nuée ardente of giant size is unequivocally described. It is vividly allegorized as an all-devouring fire which progresses like a cavalry charge, passing over all obstacles in unison. Moreover, it darkens the sun and the moon, burns up the grass and forests, passes over streams without halting, leaps over walls, enters windows, causes earthquakes and thundering noises, etc.. Barring giant asteroidal falls and divine intervention, what else could this sort of thing be but a giant volcanic conflagration? And Joel too equates this land to the Garden of Eden, which he mentions specifically. The passage of Numbers just linked also refers that the land in question is the one of the Nephelim, the Fallen Giants who are no other than the decayed Atlanteans. Joining all the facts, it is difficult to think of another site than Indonesia itself, the true site of Atlantis,as we have been arguing for two decades now.]

the primordial castration and the universal twins

As we argue in detail elsewhere, [LINK: to Origin of Seven Sacraments] these mythical "castrations" in fact refer to volcanoes such as the Toba and the Krakatoa blowing their top and sinking away into their enormous calderas, and hence changing from a phallic shape into a gynic one, and generating a lot of "froth" (pumice stone) in the process. Again, this churning is a clever allegory of the destruction of Paradise by the giant volcanism [LINK: to my article: Volcanoes - Internet] This giant volcanism changed Mt. Atlas from a volcanic peak into a giant submarine caldera, as we explain next. This event is also allegorized, again in beautiful images, the "Primordial Castration" of the Holy Mountain of Paradise and its fall into the Ocean, and the rebirth of the renewed Paradise of the subsequent era.

Another similar allegory is the one we mentioned briefly further above, concerning the myth of the Fallen Sun, who is also the Primordial Castrate. The former Sun (male) falls down into the seas, and is reborn as the New Moon (female). That means he is the alias of Venus or, yet, of the renewed Earth and the rejuvenated Great Mother that reappears as her own daughter, the Virgin (Kore, etc.). Interestingly enough, the birth of the Navajo Twins is also attended by foam which, as we will see below, has a deep esoteric significance, being indeed the "froth" generated by huge volcanic eruptions of a rhyolithic nature.

According to the Male Shooting Chant of the Navajos, the Twins were born from Changing Woman, and were fathered, sequentially, by Dripping Water and Sun. Most mythical Twins are born thus, fathered by two different fathers. A well-known case is that of Hercules and Iphicles, successively fathered by Zeus and Amphitrion. Likewise, Cain and Abel were also born of Eve, fathered, respectively, by both God and Adam (Gen. 4:1-2; the passage is obscure, but the implication is obvious). Indeed, even Jesus Christ and his Twin (Thomas Didymus) may have been bred this way.

As usual, this double impregnation scheme is of Hindu origin, and is instanced, f. i., in the miraculous conception of Krishna and Balarama and that of the Ashvin Twins. Several apocryphal gospels tell, often in allegoric but unequivocal terms, of the dual paternity of Christ and his many-named Twin who is the adopted god of Gnostics everywhere. The two fathers are either Joseph and the Angel or the Holy Ghost and the Father, or even Joseph and a mysterious Roman legionary called Panthera. In every case, the myth is the same in its esoteric context.

the regaining of youth

In one Navajo sacred dance, Changing Woman, old, decrepit and feeble, is led through the four different stations of a ritual sand paintings and regains her youth, finally coming out as fresh and as virginal as the Earth in springtime. Apparently, she is reborn as a male, the Junior Twin or as his twin sister, the Virgin. Junior is far more than just a companion and mate to the Elder Twin. He/she also seems to be his lover as well. This is evidenced, for instance, when Changing Woman completes the change, and sings:

Changing Woman's child I have become,
With him I go, being restored to youth,
According to beauty I walk.

All is in accord again,
All is in accord again,
All is in accord again
All is in accord again.

the navajo twins and their old world counterparts

The Navajo Twins also evoke Amphion and Zethos, the builders of the walls of Thebes, in Greek mythology. Amphion was rough and brutal and gigantic like Slayer-of-alien-gods, whereas Zethos was slight, gentle and charming like Child-of-the-waters. The elder twin was born "somewhat precipitately, to the sound of thunder", whereas the younger twin was born "mildly to the accompaniment of gentle thunder".

Their exploits are also treated in far more detail in those of their counterparts among the South American Indians. There, the twins are called Nanderikey and Tiviry by the Apapocuva Guarani, names that mean, respectively "Our Lord" and "Twin". The Twins are also worshipped by the other South American Indians, who call them by equivalent names.

As we said above, some Amerindian tribes make the second Twin a female, as is the case of Jurupari and Romi Kumu. These two are, respectively, the Great Father and the Great Mother of the Barasana Indians. Among other Brazilian tribes, for instance the Ava-Katu-Etê and the Aché, the Twins are identified to the Sun and the Moon, and are actually called Kuaray ("Sun") and Yacy ("Moon").

The Primordial Couple of the Barasana Indians of Brazil also closely recalls Yama and Yami, their Hindu equivalents and archetypes. These names mean, respectively, "Male Twin" and "Female Twin", and their myth and role is highly complex in Indian mythology. An even closer parallel with the Barasana Twins is afforded by Shiva and Brahma. Both gods end up by being castrated, like Romi Kumu and Jurupari. This event takes place repeatedly in different occasions, during which, in alternation, one of the Twins plays the female to the other Twin. In this way they engender Humanity and, indeed the whole of Creation.

Even in Christianism, things apparently accord to this scheme. The figure of Christ's twin is often the one of the Beloved Disciple. This personage is often confused with St. John the Baptist, with St. John the Evangelist, with Thomas Dydimus ("twin Twin") or even Judas and Mary the Magdalene. For instance, in Gnostic figurations such as the famous one of Leonardo da Vinci, St. John the Baptist is traditionally painted as an androgynous personage, charming and effeminate.

As we point out elsewhere, the "twin" figures of Christ and John and the peculiar circumstances attending their engendering, their birth and their childhood were copied verbatim from the Hindu Gospels of Krishna and Balarama. Even the puzzling detail which the Hindus call samkarshana — the mysterious trading of wombs from one Virgin Mother to the other — is not lacking in the Christian version. Actually, these mysterious events are allegories of the Paradisial events having to do with the Mass (Missa) and the Messiah, as discussed in the previous footnote. But this theme cannot be treated in more detail here, for certain things may not yet be disclosed in public.

[Footnote: John is the "Beloved Disciple", and the Gospels are full of hints they are indeed lovers. If so, the two correspond to the twins of all mythologies, usually lovers of each other. One should not adopt a prudish attitude or be shocked by such relations. After all, myths are only allegories. In fact, the Twins personify the twin volcanoes of Indonesia, the Toba and the Krakatoa. Toba collapsed, and turned into a giant caldera, the Cosmic Yoni. The Krakatoa, in turn, remained a peak, and was hence long equated to the Cosmic Linga, until it too collapsed and became a yoni. Hence the confused serial castrations of Hindu myths or those of the Greeks, for instance the myth of Agdistis and Demeter or the ones of Kronos and Ouranos. >>>

Far from obscene, the symbolism of the Yoni and the Linga are the most sacred symbols of the Hindus. In fact, they closely correspond to the Crucifix of Christians, where the horizontal corresponds to the female principle, whereas the vertical one represents its male counterpart, the phallus. It is sobering to realize that, after all, our own myths are, like those of the Primitives everywhere, no more than allegories of volcanic events, long equated to divine manifestations (theophanies) by the ancients. Thus, Jahveh manifests himself to Moses as a fiery volcanic conflagration of the Holy Mountain (Mt. Sinai), in a way no self-respecting volcanologist will fail to identify as a volcanic eruption poetically described by a primitive people. And if gods indeed exist, wouldn't they choose to manifest themselves in volcanoes, perhaps the most awe-inspiring events we humans know about, even when watched from afar? Read the Bible under that light, particularly passages such as the ones above or others on the Day of the Lord, and see for yourself if all this "fire and brimstone", if at all real, do not come from volcanoes, perhaps stirred into action by the resident deity, as the ancients so firmly believed.]

the six veils of amerindian myths

The Navajo Twins were born in a mysterious spot, covered by six successive veils: darkness; the blues skies; dusk, dawn, mirage and heat. They were reared by the doorkeepers of Changing Woman, Bear Man and Rattlesnake Man. These two doorkeepers apparently correspond to the Polar Constellations of the Lesser Bear and Draco, whereas Changing Woman herself corresponds to Lyra, the third Polar Constellation, which is the female counterpart of the other two, both males.

But we should never forget that the Celestial constellations, just as the personifications of the Heroes and Gods are no more than allegories, symbols and metaphors that stand for an ulterior Reality. This is a complex subject, whose discussion does not fit here, and which has been examined by us elsewhere. It has to do with the alternation of the Eras of Mankind and the sharing of the single phallus between the two deities, who trade roles and sex this way.

Hence, they are neither volcanoes, nor stars, nor planets, nor the sun or moon or earth, nor the wind or the sea or rainbows and, even less, humans or heroes, godly or not. In fact, they are all this. All these things are, in the minds of the primitives and mystics everywhere, divine manifestations, facets of the deity, sparkles of lights akin to the ones of diamonds and pearls. Of course, the more forceful manifestations are the most imposing, and angry gods are wont to manifest themselves in a way that makes their presence felt for quite some time: the major cataclysms that have affected the world. And the last one of these — the one which is best remembered in myths everywhere was of course the catastrophic ending of the Pleistcene Ice Age.

Of course, the stellar images are just allegorical, as indeed are the personifications and the luni-solar avatars of both Gods and Heroes. All such, are indeed personifications of nations, races and peoples that fashioned human history and are considered to be our mythical Ancestors. More exactly still, the Twins personify the twin Atlantises, the two Paradises where humanity originally arose and evolved, becoming civilized, and reaching a spiritual and technical development that we are still, despite all our arrogance, incapable of even dreaming about. When we grow up as much as they did, we can perhaps become gods and angels, as Pythagoras said we could.

The essence of myths, the secret to their understanding, is the free use of metaphor. Nothing is ever told directly,but invariably by the free use of images of all sorts: allegories, parables, riddles, wordplays, puns, enigmas, paradoxes, and so on. Christ himself warned us that his words are but "riddles and enigmas" that have to be deciphered before they can be understood. The very word "myth" is related to the Latin minto ("I lie"). But far from sheer fable, myths are encoded history. The true history of Atlantis, its rise, and its fall. And it is thus that they are to be understood, at least insofar as History itself is concerned. Of course, holy books such as the Bible, the Quran and the Rig Veda have a message for each and every one of us. They work at several levels, according to the 48 Sciences: Magic, Alchemy, Psychology, History, Astrology, Music, Poetry, and so on.

the mysterious exploits of the navajo twins

The Navajo Twins are usually referred to as Firstborn and Secondborn, a standard designation of the Twins everywhere. Soon after their birth — they grew up in a few days — the Twins set out to search for their father, the Sun, in order to be granted powers. Their way is long and difficult, and fraught with dangers posed by all sorts of monsters and perils, which they conquer.

This tale closely resembles the one of the Mayan Twins, told in the Popol Vuh, concerning the return of their Twins to Xibalba, the mysterious Land of the Dead. The Land of the Dead is indeed Paradise Destroyed and, more exactly still, sunken Atlantis, the former Island of the Sun. This story also closely evokes the one of Phaeton's pilgrimage to the Sun's palace so masterfully told by Ovid (Met. 1:746). Here the boy — apparently disputing with his "twin" (Epaphus), as usual, —heads for Ethiopia and the Land of Sunrise which is of course no other than Indonesia, where else?

Plato tells us, in his Timaeus (22c), that the myth of Phaeton and the fall of the son of the sun is indeed an allegory of destructions such as the one of Atlantis, which periodically afflict the earth. So, the connection here is as direct as myths can be, as this is the dialogue where Plato is disclosing the secret of Atlantis and its destruction by a volcanism. Interesting as this story is, it seems to come from India, where it is told by Ananda Coomaraswamy (A. K. Coomaraswamy, Sr. Nivedita, Myths of the Hindus and Buddhists, London, 1967). In this version, the boy, the son of the sun, becomes the Pole Star (Dhruva), because of his constancy. But the story is clearly the same, under a slightly different allegory.

In order to get there, the Navajo Twins rode a rainbow, which magically transported them across the skies. Successively, the Twins meet Spider Woman, Clashing Rocks, Cutting Reeds, Burying-sand-dune, and finally reach the Sun's house. There they are resisted by the Four Guardians: Bear, Rattlesnake, Wind, and Thunder, who are appeased when they state their respective names. The Sun, at first, fails to acknowledge the Twins as his own children, and attempts to kill them. But after several unsuccessful attempts, the Sun finally recognizes his children in the two valiant boys. He renders them invisible and immortal, "after his own image", rendering them "holy forever".

[Footnote: The rainbow is an usual allegory of a ship, possibly because of its cup-like form. So is, by the way, the Rainbow Serpent, both in the Americas and Oceania (Australia, etc.) and in the East Indies (Angkor, etc.). Likewise, the sun or his son (Phaeton) are usual metaphors of a volcano. Very often, the sons of the sun are twin (the Navajo Twins, etc.). In the Mahabharata (1:33), Kunti gives birth to the Son of the Sun, Radheya, the noblest of heroes. This birth is virgin, as is so often the case with this type of hero. The Pole Star, also often twin (North and South Stars), is another usual allegory of the son (or twin sons) of the Sun. So are the Morning and the Evening Stars.

This type of story is often garbled, as is the case of Christ and John, of Krishna and Balarama, of Hermes and Apollo, of Phaeton and Epaphus, of Castor and Pollux, of the Ashvin Twins, Mitra and Varuna, and so on. The case is the same in the Americas, witness the twin heroes of the Mayan Popol Vuh and many others such. Christ himself is often identified to the Sun (Sol Invictus) and to the Pole Star or Morning Star, clearly in the same context. Of course, the Pagan legend may have been accreted to his name, though I fear he indeed is, as some say, purely a Solar Myth, who never existed at all. No matter what, it seems the Twins of all traditions indeed represent the twin volcanoes of Indonesia, the ones which were indeed the archetypes of the twin Pillars of Hercules, as we argue in detail elsewhere.]

the twins as monster-killing heroes

The Sun also gives his sons lightning bolts for weapons. These weapons were capable of killing all sorts of monsters, former children of the sun himself. The Twins then return to earth, falling from the skies "like lightning bolts". The place where the first twin landed became known as "Like-zigzag-lightning-he-came-down", whereas that of the second twin was named "Let-down-on-a-sunbeam". These "descents from heaven" in the shape of lightning bolts are avatars, a Sanskrit word meaning "falling star" and, more exactly, implying the fall of the vajra. We see in those falls the explosive eruption of the twin volcanoes which destroyed Atlantis, one at its start, the other one at its end. The Atlanteans, turned demonic after the Fall, are the "monsters" in question here.

The fall of the Navajo Twins is quaintly reminiscent of those of Christ and of Lucifer, the Twins of Judeo-Christian traditions, to which we return further below. Diodorus Siculus also tells an intriguing story of Atlas and Hesperus — obviously allegorized as the twin Morning Stars (Phosphorus and Hesperus)— which he identifies with the destruction of Atlantis (Hist. Lib. 3:4) in a (purposefully) confused way. The story closely parallels the fall of Lanka and other similar Hindu traditions. But his narrative is too obscure to treat here, so that we head the interested reader to the masterful discussion done by Lewis Spence in his The History of Atlantis (N. York, 1968, pg. 24) or my ones, done in detail elsewhere.

Upon their return, the Twins start killing off all sorts of terrible monsters: Giant Monster, Burrowing Monster, Kicker-off-the-Rocks, Tracking Bear, Kills-with-the-eye, Walking Rock, etc.. Next, the Twins set out again from their mother's house, leaving behind their own counterparts in the persons of Holy Man and Holy Boy.

The Twins successively go to Trembling Mountain, Whirling Mountain, Mountain-Fallen-Away, Striped Mountain and Coiled Mountain, where they learn the magic chants and the magic diagrams (sandpainted) from various local deities. These five mountains are all holy. They closely correspond to Mt. Meru and its four flanking mountains, which are the sites of the Hindu Paradises, as we shall see further below. As such, the five mountains — which form a quincunx like the Hindu and the Pythagorean ones —are endlessly portrayed in the Navajo sandpainted mandalas which we will be discussing further below.

the conquest of the elixir and its old world parallels

Finally, the Twins are given the Elixir, called "Old-age-restored-in-beauty". This they give to their mother, Changing Woman, in order to make her young again. After her change, Changing Woman is made to move out to a place "near Canyon de Chelly" (the Navajo Indian Reservation in Arizona), forced out of her pristine home by the Twins and other gods.

As is clear, Changing Woman represents the Indians (Navajos) chased out of the Primordial Paradise by encroaching nations, including their own offspring. Most of the features in the Navajo myth of the Twins can be traced back to the Old World, as well as to South America and other places. For instance the Clashing Rocks are the same as the Symplegades of the Odyssey and the Argonautica, and also have counterparts in South America, in the Yvymomó of the Apopocuva Guaranis, not to mention the other Indians.

It is impossible to read the relation of the adventures of the Navajo Twins without noticing the fundamental parallelism with the similar deeds of Old World Twins and Giant-Killers. In particular the adventures of the Amerindian Twins closely correspond to those of Krishna and Balarama of Hindu traditions, of Gilgamesh and Enkidu of Sumerian myths, or the ones of Horus and Seth in Egyptian mythology or, yet, those of Atlas (or Orion) and Hercules in Greece or of Thor and Odin among the Scandinavians.

In fact, all these myths derive from a single (Atlantean) source, which was endlessly copied and adapted by each nation along the centuries, and came to form the base of their religion, again of Atlantean origin. It was also thus that the myth of the Twins entered Christianism in the dual figures of Christ and the Antichrist(Lucifer), that we mentioned above.

The White Island, which turned into a mountain at night and grew up into the skies, is visibly the same as the Scylla of the Odyssey, described in identical terms by Homer. Here, the myth of this island-mountain has been is blended with the ones of the Leukades ("White Islands") and of Shveta-dvipa (idem) of the Hindus.

In reality, this lofty mountain is Mt. Atlas or Meru, called Mt. Cassius (that is, Kachi or "White") in some traditions such as the Greco-Roman and Phoenician ones reported by Avienus. The dual of the Cosmic Mountain (Linga) is the Cosmic Chasm (Yoni), figured in Homer as the terrifying Charybdis faced by Odysseus in his trip to Phaeacia, which is no other thing than the sunken paradise of Atlantis. In fact, Scylla and Charybdis —one a giant volcanic peak, the other the enormous caldera of a submarine volcano — are allegories of the impassable barrier of the Pillars of Hercules, as we explain elsewhere in detail.

The Cutting Reeds that reach out to grab and cut up people is another traditional motif of supreme importance. This legend is connected with the one of the Sargasso Sea of the ancients which, allegedly, did the same. Ultimately, the (Phoenician) legend of the Sea of Sargassos derives from the Hindu one of Nalanala ("Sea of Weeds") and that of Kushadvipa ("the Island of Kusha Grass"), whose reeds also retained passing ships and dragged them to the bottom, just as Columbus and his men feared would happen to them in the Caribbean region they mistook for the one of the Indies, which they indeed intended to reach.

In fact, the above legends refer to the islands and seas of Indonesia, in reality full of such sandbars and muddy shoals, spiny reeds and weeds, as we comment in detail elsewhere. And it is indeed in Indonesia that we find the huge chasm which the Greeks called Symplegades, and which the Hindus call by the name of Vadava-mukha ("the Mare's Mouth"). The Vadava-mukha is actually the site of the Krakatoa volcano, which turned into a immense caldera after the catastrophic explosive eruption that devastated paradisial Atlantis.

This giant explosion spit huge amounts of pumice-stone which formed enormous floating banks that presented a terrible threat to navigation in those seas. This happens even today, when the local volcanoes, including the Krakatoa itself, erupt explosively, spewing out cinders and volcanic bombs composed of pumice-stone which forms enormous banks that hamper navigation in the local seas. From the magnitude of the banks of pumice formed by such relatively minor eruptions, we can imagine the huge size of the colossal explosion that razed Paradisial Atlantis.

the hindu archetypes

The magical rainbow that carries the Twins across the skies relates to motifs such as the Flying Carpets of Arab legends and the Rainbow Bridges that access Paradise in Germanic mythology. More exactly, they correspond to the Rainbow Nagas of Angkor, which serve a similar purpose or, yet, the well-known Vimanas (or Flying Chariots) of the Hindus. One such is Pushpaka, the giant airship that transported Rama and his immense armies on their way back from Lanka, the Paradise they had conquered and destroyed in Indonesia. Lanka is the true archetype of Atlantis, and it is interesting to find in that war — the War of Atlantis — the super-weapons such as Pushpaka and others such mentioned in the beautiful Hindu saga, the Ramayana.

Pushpaka was the size of a full city, and was covered with many palaces gardens and fountains, all fully bedecked with precious metals and gemstones of many colors. Like its Amerindian counterparts, Pushpaka left a track on the skies with resembled a rainbow or a meteor's track. True or fictional, such flying chariots — called vimanas or vahanas in Sanskrit — permeate Hindu Holy Books such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, and have clearly inspired the other similar traditions like those of the Celts, the Germans, the Indonesians and the Navajos.

the meaning of the fallen angels

The idea of the Twins falling from the skies like twin thunderbolts also derives from Hindu traditions. The thunderbolt is really the vajra, and represents a falling star or, more exactly, a meteoritic fall. We encounter, as we already said, the same motif in the Bible, where both Christ and Lucifer "fall from the skies like lightning" (Isa. 14:2; Luk. 10:18; 17:24; Matt. 24:27; Rev. 9:1; 12:9, etc.). In Indonesian traditions, illustrated in stone in the majestic portals of Borobudur, it is the Celestial Nagas that do so, and that serve as the magic rainbow bridge which links heaven and earth. In Vedic India, it is the decapitated head of Dadhyanch (or Angiras) that falls from the skies thus. In Greece it is the palladium, and so on.

Dadhyanch is the archetype of the Fallen Angels (Angiras = Angelos = "Angel") and their many aliases we encounter in all mythologies. In Celtic mythology — or, more exactly, in the Arthurian Cycle — we find this skull, which becomes the vajra, as the emerald that fell off Lucifer's crown during his Fall. And, as we showed, the avatars of Vishnu are really allegories of such "star-falls"(ava-taras). Indeed, as said above, the fall of Lucifer and even the descent of Christ down to earth (his avatar) is described, in the Bible, as "similar to the fall of a thunderbolt", an image obviously gotten from the Hindu archetypes just mentioned, which date from Vedic times.

In the Grail cycle, the fall of Lucifer is modified into the one of the emerald which fell from his crown. From this emerald, the Holy Grail was carved, according to Wolfram von Eschenbach. In India it is a diamond, the one which is indeed the vajra. In other words, Dadhyanch's falling skull is the vajra. When it falls down into the ocean, it forms the First Land, the same as the Primordial Hill that rises out of the abyss in Egyptian traditions and which is often equated to the phallus of Ptah. This becomes the First Land, the giant Phallus of the World which is also the Hill of Sunrise, where the world started.

This mountain is also the Holy Mountain (Meru) at the Center of the World, the one variously called by names such as Golgotha, Calvary, Kailasha, Qaf, Alborj, Bereshaiti, and others such, all of which mean something like "Skull Mountain". In Judeo-Christian traditions, it is the skull of Adam that falls from the skies thus, and that becomes Mt. Calvary (or Golgotha = "Skull"), as we explain further below. And this is, still, the same as the Hill of Sunrise represented by the Great Pyramid and its counterparts everywhere, including China, Indonesia, Angkor, Mexico Peru, Guimar, and so on.

This type of myth is clearly universal. It is also allegorized as the Fall of the Sun or that of his Son (Phaeton, Apollo, Lucifer, etc.). The events hidden under such allegories are,at one level, the periodic giant meteoritic falls which destroy the world, just as they did in the dinosaurs or lifted off the Moon off the Earth. Above all, they also allegorize the huge volcanic bombs thrown from under the earth into the skies by the giant volcanic explosions such as that of Mt. Atlas (the Krakatoa), the very one which destroyed Paradise and its earlier, mightier counterpart, the Toba volcano, as we argued above.

One type of destruction considered celestial, the other one infernal. And they take turns in destroying the world, both in fact and in the ancient myths such as the ones we are commenting here. Such is the reason why one of the Twins is deemed heavenly, whereas his dual is infernal and even more fearful due his far more frequent visitations. In the Navajo legend we have the twin Sons of the Sun falling down from Heaven just as we had the fall of Phaeton (son of Helios) in Greece, or that of Solar Varuna in India. But, if we look closer, such falls are always dual and often consist of the fall of the Celestial (or Solar) Twin and of the ascension of his chthonic dual into Heaven.

The Twins of the Navajos are armed with the thunderbolt (likewise dual), just as are Zeus and Poseidon (the Thunderbolt and the Trident) or Indra and Shiva (idem). The gods and heroes of the Navajos, Pueblos and Apaches are called Kachina. This word seems to be related to the Dravidian Kattiyam = "clever", "dexterous", "heroic", which implies the idea of a Hero, that is, of the male engenderer (Skt. gandha).

In other words, the Kachina are the Fallen Angels or Celestial Messengers (Peyote) who taught the humans all arts and skills and freed the world from the monsters. Moreover, they also loved and inseminated the daughters of such monsters, engendering humanity from the semi-bestial apish creatures that then peopled the earth.

These Fallen Angels are no other than the Atlantean Sons of God, the Civilizing Heroes that we encounter in essentially all mythologies of the ancient nations, both in the Old and in the New World. Why would our forefathers invent such a myth and build their religions around them if they were just a lie, an invention of some sort? Saviors such as Christ, Mani, Buddha and Krishna among others, are deemed real, historical personages.

The Saviors of all religions are indeed replicas, real or not, of the Heroes of old, they too Sons of God by a mortal, and combining both natures, like Christ and Krishna. When we go back in time, this endless succession of Saviours ultimately end in Flood heroes such as Manu and Noah, the very ones who founded the present era. And the Flood is indeed no other thing than the cataclysm that foundered Atlantis, in the dawn of times. Hence, we see that, in fact, the Civilizing Heroes are personifications of the Missae (or Messiahs), the Celestial Messengers who came out from Atlantis, that is, from the sunken Paradise turned into the Land of the Dead of the ancient traditions.

the island of fire and the island of the sun

The Civilizing Heroes of both the Old and the New World were the luciferine Dravidas of South India, Burma and pristine Indonesia. This region was the true site of Eden and, hence, of Atlantis, which now became the vast sunken continent of now lying on the shallow bottom of the South China Sea and others in the region.[Link to site article: The True History of Atlantis]. This continent is called Sundaland by the geographers and other specialists, because it is located on the Sunda Shelf and in the neighbourhood of the Sunda Strait, the one which now sunders Java from Sumatra.

Though the connection with Atlantis may be denied by some, the existence of this vast continent may not be doubted, as it has now been mapped in detail by NASA's and NOAA's spy satellites, able as they are to scan the bottoms of the seas themselves from outer space. And, as can be seen by a direct comparison of the map obtained by NOOA, and only recently declassified, and the map in my site, just linked, and obtained by myself from bathymetric data then available, some twenty years ago, it can be seen that the coincidence is most perfect, except for matters of detail.

Moreover, zoogeographers and other specialists have also confirmed that: "During most of the glaciation periods, Sundaland was above the sea and formed one more or less united land mass, while in warmer times large areas were submerged". In other words, if not Atlantis, the region at least behaved remarkably like it, even though geologists insist, even today, that "continents cannot possibly sink"', as I have been told repeatedly. It is all a matter of Relativity. They can and they cannot. In fact, they cannot, at least under ordinary conditions. But sea level can rise, and cover them, as was the case in the Indonesian region. But Einstein and others, Epicurus included, would argue that it is all the same. And the unfortunate dead in the cataclysm would agree with them, I am sure, if they could speak out.

But it is time to return to the delectable Twins of the Navajo traditions. As we said above, the "indigenism" of the Amerindians was, like their "savagery" and their incorrigible "irreligion", merely a contrivance of the Whites in order to justify the genocide of their elder brothers of America, whose land and wealth they burningly coveted. These pristine "Reds" were the Atlantean Dravidas, the ruddy moiety called by precisely that epithet in nearly all traditions. And as such, rendered wise by the cataclysm which destroyed their pristine homeland, they returned to their former piety, and became far, far more pious than their greed junior brothers.

Eden, the Terrestrial Paradise, was as we just said, indeed Indonesia and, more exactly, the sunken portion of it which we identify with Atlantis. In fact, Indonesia is precisely the "Island of Fire" that is so often associated with Paradise in the ancient Gnostic traditions. Indonesia derives its name from the Greek Indos-nesos, meaning "Indian island" or, what is the same, "Insular India". But the word "India" derives, like the name of Eden to which it is related, from a Sanskrit radix indh (or endh or edh) meaning "fire".

In a variant, the radix is also related to sindhu, a word meaning "water, river, flood, sea", in Sanskrit, the sacred tongue of the region. Since Sanskrit is a polysemic tongue, one where all etyma compound to tell the whole story, we may freely interpret the name of Indonesia as meaning "Island of Fire sunken by the Flood" or, alternatively, "Island sunken by Fire and the Flood". fire and water, as usual. And a telltale name, at that.

So, the true etym (or etymon or etymology) of the name of Indonesia is "Island of Fire", as we just said. But the above radix is also associated with the idea of "sun" (Drav. endi, eddi), so that "Indonesia" is also the "Island of the Sun", another frequent name of Atlantis in esoteric traditions, for instance, in the remarkable booklet authored by Thomaso Campanella and entitled precisely the "City of the Sun".

Campanella places his mythical island, an Utopia like Plato's, precisely in Taprobane. And Taprobane is indeed Sumatra, rather than Sri Lanka, as we demonstrate in detail elsewhere. [Link: to my article "The Island of Taprobane"]. As is clear, these Renaissance guys knew a lot on esoteric matters we have apparently utterly forgotten. Taprobane-Sumatra, the great Indonesian island, is precisely the place where we have located Atlantis-Eden. Eden, the Terrestrial Paradise, was indeed the Lemurian Atlantis that was the Great Mother of gods and men. Her wonderful "Son" (or "Twin" or "Lover") was the second Paradise, the second Atlantis, the one described by Plato, which flourished in the same place during the Ice Age, when it recovered from the cataclysm caused by Toba's giant explosive eruption of about 75 kya [kiloyears ago].

the meaning of the navajo sandpaintings

We finally reach a position where we can usefully interpret the Navajo sandpaintings. This sophisticated form of artistic expression they learnt from the Pueblo Indians, along with the arts and techniques, as we detailed above. And he Pueblo Indians brought this type of religious symbolism directly from Eden itself, as we now argue. We hope that, by now, the dear reader who followed us patiently up to here, is at least half convinced that the Amerindian myths and religions are essentially the same as those of the Old World, particularly insofar as the esoteric message is concerned.

And, if our dear readers bear with us to the end of the present chapter they will, we are sure, be as fully convinced as we were ourselves when we first discovered the true meaning of Hindu and Amerindian mythology and their intimate connection with the secret history of Atlantis. This decipherment is a feat I boast of having done by myself, perhaps for the first time ever, as these secrets are never told to profanes. So much so, that the secrets having to do with the reality of Atlantis and its connections with Eden have been utterly forgotten by all, believers and nonbelievers alike.

Of course, the underlying meaning of the Amerindian myths is very difficult to penetrate. It is perhaps even more difficult than their Old World mythical counterparts, at least in our opinion. After all, the Amerindian myths are, like the ones of the Old World, part of the secret of the Mysteries. So, if they were easy to pierce, they would be no Mysteries, and would require no Initiation at all. But, even without fully understanding the inner meaning of the ancient myths and religious traditions, it is readily apparent that they all derive from a single, unique source of diffusion.

The agreement in form, in detail and in significance transcends all possibility of random coincidences. And the forms are so sophisticate, so close in all details, and so transcendental as to preclude all sorts of collective archetypes possibly engraved in the human unconscious, in the way proposed by Jung and Eliade and, a little bit less fancifully, by Freud and his school. In fact, they all derive from the same archetypes, the same primeval eideias described in Plato's remarkable Myth of the Cave. They are all congruent, and they all compound to tell the moving story of Paradise Lost.

The question is indeed one of diffusion, as is visible in the transference from the Pueblos to the Athabascans (Apaches and Navajos) and in the other ones mentioned above. In turn, the Pueblo Indians were instructed by the Mayas and Aztecs; these by the Incas, and the Incas by the Civilizing Heroes who came all the way from the East Indies, across Polynesia and Melanesia, as their own legends and traditions tell in detail. In our work on the Mayas, Incas and Aztecs, we show how these Indians indeed came from there or, more exactly, their Civilizing Heroes such as Bochica, Sumé, Quetzalcoatl and Kukulkan indeed did. And these were the Atlantean survivors and their descendants from the Far Orient.

the hindu mandalas as archetypes of the navajo ones

Fig. 2(b) - Navajo Sandpainted Mandalas (click to enlarge)Fig. 2(a) - Navajo Sandpainted Mandalas (click to enlarge)In the figures below we reproduce a few of the lavishly colored sandpainted mandalas of the Navajos, as well as the even more perfect ones of the Hindus and the Tibetans. For reasons of space, we are limited to presenting only a couple of such mandalas. But the interested reader is recommended to pursue the comparison in the references listed below, or in any others that he may find for himself in the abundant literature on the subject or, yet, by following the Internet links given here and here . 2 [BERNARDO, SE DER, CORRIJA O DESENHO AO LADO PARA O SINGULAR: "NAVAJO SANDPAINTED MANDALA". E SE DER, ACERTE O TAMANHO PARA FICAREM IGUAIS. ALIAS, FAZER ISTO EM TODAS AS FIGURAS DUPLAS]

Fig. 2 (a and b) shows the Place of Emergence of the Navajos as the Central Mountain surrounded by the Four Subsidiary Centers (also consisting of mountains or islands). These five mountains are the same as those visited by the Twins, as described further above. The four piled-up triangles at the four corners represent the succession of the Four Eras of Humanity, with the fifth being the central one. The five peaks also correspond to the Five Ages of Hesiod, with the fifth and virtual one, the Age of the Heroes, the one which corresponds to Atlantis, represented at the center.

Note that the structure in quincunx is typical of the Holy Mountain Meru in Hindu traditions which are of an extreme antiquity. As such, it represents the world with its five continents: the central one at the center (Atlantis), and the four others at the Four Cardinal Directions. This structure also represents Atlantis' capital city, itself shaped similarly as a replica of the world, as described by Plato. This type of structure with its quincunx geometry and its three-tiered structure is found in Angkor, and is typical of the temples and pyramids of Southeast Asia. But it is found in temples and similar monuments all over the ancient world, for instance in mosques and in St. Sophia Cathedral, in Istambul (Turkey), the former Constantinople which was the capital of the Roman Empire of the East.

These structures all represent replicas of the world and its Holy Mountain everywhere. To find this sophisticate symbolism in the Americas is a surprise, as this unequivocally proves that the symbolism dates from before the end of the Pleistocene, when Old World cultures got separated from those of the New World, according to the present views of academic archaeologists. How the primitives of Paleolithic times could have developed such a sophisticate, accurate view of the cosmos is, in our view, a mystery that can only be explained by the hypothesis of Atlantis. What else?

Fig. 2(c) - Navajo Sandpainted Mandalas (click to enlarge)Fig. 3(a) - Some Traditional Hindu Mandalas (click to enlarge)The Hesiodic theme of the Four (or Five) Eras (or Ages) of Humanity again derives from the four Hindu Yugas (or Eras). But the motif of the four ages of mankind is also widespread all over the Americas, as we show in other works on the subject. And peoples such as the Mayas and the Aztecs also divided the cosmos into four corners, more or less like the Hindus and others in the Old World. Even the four colors attributed to these four directions — white, yellow, red, black — exactly correspond to the Hindu ones. And they, of course, also correspond to the four types or "colors" of humans, as is easy to see.

The staggered triangles of the Navajo mandala represent the same symbolism as those of the famous Shri Yantra mandala of the Hindus. They represent, as shown in Fig. 3, the sequential Creations of the successive eras emanating like waves from the Primordial Center. The two bindus, white and red, at the center of the Shri Yantra are Shiva and Shakti, representing the two original races of Atlantis, whites and Reds.

The explanations given in Hindu sources are of course highly esoteric, and are accessible to the initiates only. As an example, we quote the Kamakalavilasa: "The two bindus [of the Shri Yantra], white and red, are Shiva and Shakti, who in their secret mutual enjoyment are now expanding and now contracting... the Sun is Kama, which is so called because of its desirableness; and Kala is the two bindus which are Moon and Fire". Kama, the fiery love god of the Hindus, is of course the same as Cham, the patriarch of the Chamites which would later engender the red races, as explained further above. The white, lunar principle represents the white races. And their endless "love making" indeed represents the eternal wars of Dravidas and Aryo-Semites, wherever they meet each other.

The Vamakeshvaratantra gives a further gloss on the Shri Yantra: "Dear One, Tripura is the ultimate, primordial Shakti, the light of manifestation. She, the pile of letters of the alphabet, gave birth to the three worlds. At dissolution, She is the abode of all tattvas, still remaining Herself". Tripura, and the myth of its destruction is famous in Hindu sacred traditions. Tripura, "the Triple City", is Atlantis itself which, as Plato explains, was also triple. Here it is said to be the first, primordial source of all things (shakti = yoni = "womb, vagina"). The "light of manifestation" and the reference to the "cosmic womb" allude to the volcano's caldera which engulfed it. The "pile of letters" refers to the fact that the alphabet was invented there. The triplicity of Tripura and of Atlantis, refers to the three races and to the fact that she was the civilization of the Third Era. This was the Treta Yuga, the one before ours, the Kali Yuga. When Tripura was dissolved (destroyed, at the end of the yuga), she became the abode of Truth (Tattva). But, of course, this Truth is hidden, and has to be discovered by oneself, through initiation, as it concerns the secret doctrines on Atlantis-Eden.

Fig. 3(b) - Some Traditional Hindu Mandalas (click to enlarge)In Navajo sandpaintings, the four subsidiary Holy Mountains placed at the Four Cardinal Directions are often substituted by their Four Guardians. These four are often figured as snakes or birds, their symbolic equivalents. These Guardians are usually colored, and the respective heraldic colors are White, Yellow, Red or Blue, and Black, with the fifth, Pink, included at times. The four colors are those of the Sun's House, which is the Central Mountain and combines all four colors in either stripes, dots or superpositions. In reality, they are the colours of the four races of humans, as we said above.

The four snaky Guardians are the exact counterparts of what the Hindus call the Four Nagas ("Snake Guardians" or "Dragons"). In India too these guardians — called Lokapalas, and represented by snakes or dragons — are often symbolized by their four mountain peaks, completing the quincunx centered around Mt. Meru. Anyone who pauses to ponder on such exact coincidences cannot, we believe, come to a different conclusion than that they indeed originated in India and Indonesia and, more exactly, in Atlantis and Lemuria. What else?

the secret meaning of the hindu mandalas and yantras

The Holy Mountain of the Hindu Paradise is often represented in even more subtle allegories than the ones above. One such is a famous fretwork of Hindu origin consisting of a four-pronged star encircled by an octogon or a circle. The four-pronged star is indeed a pyramid (Mt. Meru) seen from above, in plant. The four faces of it are indented, as in the Great Pyramid and in that of Mykerinos, so that the pyramid becomes a four-pronged star. The encircling octogon or circle represents the circular Oceanus which surrounded Atlantis. The endless succession of such encircled pyramids represents the infinite succession of the eras along time.

A very similar motif is the so-called dog-tooth fretwork. It consists of a repeated series of four-sided pyramids in relief, each having the faces indented like those of Mt. Meru and the Great Pyramid. The idea is, again, identical to the above one. One of these mandalas can be seen in the front page of the Mandalas on the Web site, and is shown at the side, here. The "diamond" correspond to the Great Pyramid as seen from above (in plan). Even more exactly, it corresponds to Mt. Meru, the Holy Mountain of the Hindus which the Great Pyramids and other such imitated as a replica of Paradise (Atlantis) and its volcanic mountain at the center.[Bernardo, inserir a primeira mandala do site linkado aqui ao lado.]

Other, similar decorational motifs are used by the Amazonian and others Indians from South America in their sieves and other basketry. The colors they use are usually the ones of the Hindu four varnas (red, black, white, yellow), obtained by using fibers of different colors. Again, their preferred motifs are those of pyramidal Mt. Meru seen in plant as a four-sided star or a cruciform mountain. These clever Amazonian designs date from an immense antiquity, as attested by the ceramics found in the island of Marajó and elsewhere. Moreover, they closely correspond to similar vase decorations found elsewhere in the Americas and, indeed, all over the world, as we illustrate in detail elsewhere.

There can be little doubt that this decorational motif represents one and the same thing and, hence, derives from a single source. In fact, they are all variants of the mandalic representation of Mt. Meru, the Holy Mountain of Paradise. And, when we pause to reflect on their meaning, we see the reason why they are called mandalas or yantras.

The word yantra means "device for thinking" in Sanskrit, whereas mandala ("wheel ") is indeed related to the Skt. radix manas ("mind"), and implying the idea of "device for reminding". In other words, the mandalas or yantras — particularly those of the type called Kalachakra mandalas which we discuss in more detail further below — are devices for meditation on the Paradisial events and, more exactly, on the destruction and sinking of Atlantis by the memorable explosion of its Holy Mountain.

The Tibetan monks — whose Tantric Buddhism closely resembles certain form of Tantric Hinduism, from which it derives — have a pungent ritual called "Kalachakra Mandala Ritual". In the ritual, the mandala, carefully made of sand like the ones of the Navajo Indians, is ritually dismantled and its sand is placed inside a jar. It is then carried to the waters of a river (or lake or sea), where it is thrown, as if in a watery burial. Kalachakra mandalas represent, as we are arguing, precisely the site of Paradise and its Holy Mountain, as seen from above, in a bird's view. So, it is clear that this watery burial ceremony quaintly reenacts the pulverization of Paradise, reduced to cinders by its Holy Mountain, and its subsequent sinking under the seas, where it disappeared, perhaps forever. So, what, may we ask, can this lugubrious ritual signify other than the event so vividly described by Plato, the demise of Atlantis in precisely the same way?

the serpentine rainbow goddess and the ouroboros

Encircled all around the Central Mountain and the four subsidiary peaks of the Navajo mandala we have the Rainbow Goddess, here figured as a snake. This Rainbow Snake that encircles the whole Earth is indeed the Circular Ocean. It is sometimes made double — as all things are dual. The Rainbow Snake of the Navajo Indians closely evokes the Rainbow serpent of the Australian Aboriginals, clearly derived from the same tradition. And this is, once again a Hindu one. In Angkor Thom and elsewhere, the Serpent Shesha is also represented as the Rainbow Serpent. Coiled around the world, the Serpent Shesha represents the Ocean. Standing upright, it becomes the Pillar of Heaven, its support.

The earth-encircling ocean also has its double (or microcosmic replica) in the River Oceanus that encircled Atlantis, as well as its many counterparts all over the world. This replication is easy to understand: after all, Atlantis was fashioned like a replica of the cosmos itself. The great circle of the Ocean is also represented as a giant snake (the Ouroboros) in Greek traditions and in alchemical ones. In the Navajo mandalas, it opens towards the Orient, in an obvious reference to the Gates of Paradise, which lie towards that conventional direction. The Circular Ocean is also shown explicitly in the Hindu mandalas of Fig. 3, one of which is the famous Shri Yantra, in a stylized rendering.

The lotus on top the Holy Mountain of the Hindu mandala of Fig. 3 is indeed the Golden Lotus whose esoteric meaning we examine elsewhere in detail. The Golden Lotus is indeed the "atomic mushroom" of the giant volcanic explosion that destroyed the site of Paradise and ultimately caused its sinking away in the waters of the ocean. This "lotus" is the same as the "Pillar of Fire and Smoke" that guided the Israelites on their flight from the site of Mt. Sinai, precisely the same mountain that the Hindus call Meru and the Greeks called Mt. Atlas, and which they both also place right in the middle of Paradise.

The Circular Ocean is, as we already said, the same as the River Oceanus that encircled Atlantis, according to the description of Plato and others. This circular river (or canal, rather) is also a classical feature of the traditional descriptions of the Hindu Dvipas (Paradises). It was, just as in Greece, also the circular river of Hades which the Greeks equated with the Styx and the Hindus with the infernal Vaitarani, for sunken Atlantis veritably turned from Paradise into Hell.

mt. meru and the whirling mountain

Anyone familiar with Hindu mythology will immediately recognize that the above Four Colors — Red, White, Yellow, Black — are those of the Hindu varnas (or "castes"). And, in fact, these four colors represent the Four Races of Mankind, which originated in Paradise, at least, according to tradition. The arrangement of the Central (or Whirling) Mountain surrounded by four subsidiary peaks in the Navajo sandpainted mandalas also corresponds to that of Mt. Meru, flanked by its Four Guardians and their corresponding four subsidiary mountain peaks. In India, as with the Navajos, the Four Guardians are also represented as either gods (Lokapalas), mountains, snakes (Nagas) or birds (Garudas). The Guardians are their Totems or Naguals, which are frequently represented by the animal shapes assumed by them.

Moreover, each of the Four Hindu Guardians is also associated with a heraldic colour, in exact correspondence to the Navajo ones: White, Yellow, Black and Red. Red is the color of death and bloodshed, representing the warrior caste. This is symbolically equivalent to purple or blue, the color associated with death by asphyxia (drowning, hanging, etc.). This "death" is the drowning of Atlantis-Paradise turned into Hades, into the Realm of the Dead, by the cataclysm. The red color is also a reference to their fiery nature, as Chamites, as we argued further above.

Cham (or Kama) is often equated to the Vadava-mukha ("Fiery Submarine Mare") which is the name given to the Doomsday Fire which destroyed Paradise according to Hindu traditions. And this fire is no other than the ferocious Krakatoa volcano, now sunken under the waters of the Sunda Strait, where it awaits for the opportune moment to come back to life and again destroy the world as it did then. But the"reds" also owe their name to their ruddy complexion and their redheads, also a feature of the Tocharians, the Yüeh-Chi, the Seres, the Ethiopians, and other such Aryo-Semitic races of the Far East. To these we must also add the Canarian Guanches, the Libyans, the Nordics, certain Indo-Europeans and Jews, and other races which originally came from this region of the world.

The other three colors also correspond to the other three castes of Vedic India. So it is visible that the Hindu tradition somehow passed into the Americas, where it was universally adopted. As can be seen in Fig. 3, the four sides of Mt. Meru are also similarly colored with the Four Varnas. The Four Subsidiary Centers (or Guardians) are sometimes represented by the Four Trees shown in Fig. 2 or by buffaloes (not shown) or, yet by Winds, Suns, Moons, Bats (Vampires), Thunderbolts, as well as by Coiled or by Standing Serpents resembling zigzag lightning and ball lightning.

The Central Mountain is sometimes shown as a sort of rosacea (or four-leafed clover), with each leaf of one of the above four colors. This rosacea shape of the Holy Mountain is also frequent in India, where it was often identified to the Lotus or Rose, itself another allegory of Creation. More exactly, the Lotus allegorizes, as we just said, the "atomic mushroom" of the colossal explosion of Mt. Atlas, the one that destroyed Paradise. It was this explosion that drove the survivors out, and triggered the process of Creation everywhere, in a worldwide scale.

The rosacea of the Navajos (and other related forms) really represents a pyramid of four sides terminated by a round base. This is an exact replica of Mt. Meru of the Hindus, which is the true archetype of all such four-sided pyramids or mountains from all over the world. Mt. Meru is also the Polar (or Whirling) Mountain, turning at the Center and supporting the skies, just as is the case with Mt. Atlas, the Pillar of the Skies, in Greek myths. This blending of a round base to a square body is a representation of the world as composed of the earth (square) and sky (round).

This combination frequent in the Far East, for instance, in the stupas and temples of Southeast Asia, as in the Wat Arun (or "Temple of Dawn"). As usual, we have here the four subsidiary peaks flanking the Holy Mountain at the center, forming a quincunx. The idea is associated with the "squaring of the circle" of which we have many instances, for instance in the Great Pyramid itself. In other words, what the Whirling Mountain of the Navajo Indians indeed represents is Mt. Atlas, the Pillar of the World, linking Heaven (round) to Earth (square).

And this "pillar", the Pillar of Heaven, is, as we just said, the same as the Pillar of Fire and Smoke topping Mt. Sinai during the Exodus of the Israelites from the site of Paradise Destroyed. Mt. Atlas is just the name given by the Greeks to Mt. Meru, the Holy Mountain of Vedic Traditions. It was from this hymnary (the Rig Veda) and the associated Hindu myths that the Greeks obtained their traditions on Atlantis, already old in India and Indonesia when the Greek nation not even existed as such.

The Greeks translated as "Atlas" the Hindu name of Atalas, another name of Mt. Meru, the Mountain of Paradise. This Sanskrit word means something like "sunken down", and was rendered it into the Greek language as Atlas, a word they likewise derived from a-tla, meaning "the one that did not (a) bear out (tla)", which is approximately the same etym. Atala is also the name of a paradisial hell, sunken under the sea and the ground in its bottom. As is clear, the Greeks copied their myths on Atlas and Atlantis from the Hindu/Indonesian ones, which are not only far older, but indeed conformal to the local geography and factual traditions.

The coincidences embody not only the actual traditions, but also the very names used in both the Greek and the Hindu myths on Paradise Lost. And the region where the terrible event indeed took place was,in both traditions, Indonesia, the true site of the former Hindu Paradise (Atala) turned into Hell itself. What else can we conclude but that the tradition of Atlantis indeed derives from the East Indies and that it is there that we must search Atlantis-Eden and the origin of Mankind and Civilization if we are ever to find it?

the four guardians and the lokapalas

Alternatively, in other Navajo mandalas, the Four Guardians are represented as Four Suns, Four Moons (identical) or as two pairs of Suns and Moons. These four figures are called Sky People, and are equated to Dawn, Blue Sky, Yellow Evening Light (Dusk), and Darkness. These are indeed the Four Cardinal Directions: Orient (or East), Occident (or West), Noon (or South) and Darkness (North). More exactly, they correspond to the Four Corners of the World.3

The Four Trees are the Trees of Life represented by four domesticated plants springing from the Central Paradise. Sometimes, all four are corn trees (maize), the Sacred Tree of most Amerinds. We note that, in Fig. 2, the subsidiary mountains are crossed by two perpendicular diameters. This emblem corresponds to the traditional symbol of the planet Earth, as well as to the so called Cross of Atlantis, as it corresponds to the shape of the capital city of the empire described by Plato.

The "Trees of Life" springing from the Navajo Paradise vividly portray the fact that agriculture and the domesticated plants and animals — whose mysterious origins are one of the greatest riddles of Mankind — indeed originated in Lemurian Atlantis, in Eden or Paradise. From there the Navajos came, in the dawn of times, from the Primordial Cave buried under the Holy Mountain and turned the Realm of the Dead, the Paradisial Hades or Amenti or Xibalba or such, which the Judeo-Christians later turned into a hellish Sheol.

More exactly, the figure portrayed in the mandala in question represents the same shape mentioned above, that of a four-sided pyramid with a round base which is the peculiar form of Mt. Meru. Apparently, this form was an idealized rendition of Mt. Everest, which has approximately the pyramidal form.

At the symbolic level, this round-based pyramid represents the "squaring of the circle", here allegorized by the serendipitous reunion of the two incongruous geometries, the circular base and the square top. This odd matching of incongruous shapes is also found in the Indies, for instance, in certain olden pagodas illustrating the Golden Mountain of Paradise (Mt. Meru), precisely as with the Whirling Mountain of the Navajo Indians.

the whirling mountain of paradise

The Central Mountain in Fig. 2 has a central circle representing a flat-topped cone or, rather, a volcanic crater. This flattop is also a feature of Mt. Meru (the lotus") and represents the "decapitation of Paradise" that is commemorated in the world's mythologies. Sometimes, this central flattop is represented by an actual bonfire at the center of the diagram. Alternatively, it is conventionally represented by a red cross at the exact Center of the World, that is, at the top of the Whirling Mountain of Paradise. In the Egyptian pyramids and obelisks, this fiery top was represented by the pyramidion at their tops. This was made of polished metal (gold), which flashed like fire in the sunlight.

As in India, the idea is that the Whirling Mountain is a volcano. It represents the Polar Mountain, placed at the exact center of the world, directly under the Pole Star, yet another allegory of the volcanic fire, as discussed further above. In fact, this universal allegory — which makes sense nowhere but in India and Indonesia — derives from a wordplay and is an esoteric reference to the Tara-milas (the Dravidas or Tamils), a name that means "People of the Pole Star" in their tongue. The reason for that name derives from the fact that the Dravidas identified their Supreme God — Shiva Sthanu, "the Pillar of the World" — with the Pole Star (Canopus), which they utilized in their Celestial navigations, in Atlantean times. And this epoch, as can be determined from astronomical calculations, was about 12 to 16 kya (kiloyears ago), precisely the times of Atlantis' apogee.

the pole star and the whirling mountain of paradise

The Pole Star in question was the South Pole Star of the epoch, Canopus, which the Greeks identified with Atlas and the Egyptians with Osiris as the Djed, the "Pillar of the World". The placement of the Holy Mountain of Paradise — Mt. Atlas or Meru or the Whirling Mountain, etc. — directly under the Pole Star is, we repeat, a mere allegory, a purely symbolic representation of its association with the Tara-milas or Dravidas, and with their great god, the alias of the Pole Star. The researchers who insist in placing Atlantis and/or Lemuria in the Polar Regions of Antarctica and the Arctic — against common sense and against the massive scientific evidence contrary to the idea of Pole Shift — commit a most grievous mistake.

[Footnote: We heard that one of the main proponents of the idea of Pole Shift, John White (Pole Shift, Berkley Books, New York, 1980) has discarded this preposterous, antiscientific notion. Pole Shift is both a geologic and a physical impossibility, as we argue elsewhere in detail. So did Charles Hapgood and other early pioneers, Einstein included. Perhaps his followers — or those who obtained the harebrained idea from the late Charles Hapgood himself — should also follow the good example of their precursors. The serious reader is urged to discard such a farfetched nonsense, that can only harm the cause of Atlantis, and bring discredit to it. After all, "you cannot fool the whole people the whole time", can you? And, of course, you cannot "eat your cake and have it too" as some apparently wish to do. Atlantis cannot possibly be located both in Antarctica, as they assert, and in Indonesia, at the equator, as they now will, and where I, first of all ever, located it. Scientific dishonesty generally leads to discredit to the whole community of researchers, academic or not.]

The Pole Star was often equated with the Morning Star. More exactly, we then had Twin Pole Stars, one the North Star (Vega) and the other the South Star (Canopus). These were represented as the Twins of all mythologies and, in particular the Twins of Navajo traditions. In Egypt, for instance, the Twin Pole Stars of Atlantean times, Vega and Canopus, were identified to Hathor and Horus (the Elder), or, also, though more confusedly, with Isis and Osiris.

In later times, after the fall of Atlantis, these twin gods were also equated to Sirius and Orion. In Greece, the Twins were often identified to Atlas and Hesperus, themselves identified to the Morning and the Evening Stars and, more exactly, to the Twin Pole Stars of Atlantean times, Vega and Canopus. These Twins, as those of the Navajos and other nations, personified the two primordial, destroyed Paradises, Atlantis and Lemuria.4

the whirling mountain is indeed a volcano

The Fiery Mountain (or Hogan) is actually a volcanic peak with its central crater. It is also a conventional representation of Mt. Meru as the Hollow Mountain that connects Heaven to Hell below. As in Indian symbolism, we see that the Navajo Sun-god is really Agni, the Principle of Fire, embodied not only in ordinary fire, but in underground fire (volcanic magma). Alternatively, Agni is also represented as Celestial Fire (thunderbolts, meteorites, the Sun). These three modalities of Fire are the Three Forms of Agni of Hindu mysticism. They also correspond to Shiva Trikaya ("Three-Bodied") and, in Greek myths, to the three-bodied giant Geryon, an alias of Atlas. Very disguisedly, Agni is also an alias of Kama, himself an allegory of the Vadava-mukha.

Thus, when the Navajos affirm that they came out from the Sun House or from within a cave representing Hell below, they are indeed saying that they came from Indonesia, the true site of Eden, placed at the very Center (or "Navel") of the Earth. Being located in the antipodes of the Americas, Indonesia is truly the netherworld, lying directly underground, on the opposite side of the earth. This Paradise Destroyed turned into a veritable inferno, plague-ridden and sterile, after it was devastated by the volcanic explosion far fiercer than the one of the Krakatoa in 1893.

This explosive eruption we already discussed above and elsewhere in connection with the "foam" or "seafroth" (pumice) which covered the seas of Atlantis after the cataclysm that destroyed it. Indeed, the references to foam (or "seafroth") connected both with Venus and with Changing Woman, as we mentioned above, actually refer to the vast amounts of pumice that covered both the seas and the land after the cataclysmic eruption of that volcano.

This mantle of volcanic ashes formed a sort of shroud, enveloping the dead body of Paradise, asphyxiating all forms of life for centuries on end. This terrible event is endlessly referred to in myths connected with the destruction of Paradise, in the so-called Cosmic Hierogamy of Fire and Water. These floating banks of "seafroth" (pumice) formed the "impassable barrier of mud" (ilus or pelos, in Greek ="froth, scum, mud, slime") mentioned by Plato as covering the seas of Atlantis and rendering them innavigable in a more or less permanent way, as we commented above. This type of feature is also mentioned in innumerous cosmogonies, as covering the seas and the ground, and rendering them sterile and unfit for life.

the pueblos, hogans and tepees as imitation volcanoes

The Navajos often depict the Central Mountain (or Sun's House) as a sort of habitation entered from above by means of a ladder, exactly like the actual houses of the Pueblo Indians, and those of Çatal Huyuk commented above. There can be no question of coincidence here, and we are led to conclude that these strange habitations actually attempted to imitate the Primordial Cave, that is, the volcanic caldera that linked to the netherworld whence these Indians allegedly came. In other words, these pueblos imitated their kivas and hogans, themselves imitating of the Primordial Cave.

What else but Atlantis can this more or less real Netherworld, this sunken Paradise be? Can you think of a fitter allegory for the sunken continent than that of the Primordial Cave represented by their kivas and their hogans? This cave is also the same as Pacari-Tambo of Mayan traditions, the Cave of Archetypes of Plato's myth, the Cave of Illusions of the Ramayana, and of a hundred similar traditions from all over the world. And, of course, this sunken, buried Paradise is no other thing than sunken Atlantis itself and, even more exactly, Lemurian Atlantis, its twin and dual.

So, the Indians themselves claim that they originally came from Paradise Sunken, from Lemurian Atlantis, in the dawn of times. This is just what we Christians and Jews do, under slightly different allegories. Why do we insist in denying this fact but for the intention that originally underlay it, that of depriving the Indians and other aborigines of their humanity and, even, of their divine origin, in Paradise, so that we can enslave and exploit them as we have traditionally been doing and actually keep on doing even today?

In reality, the Navajo hogans and the Pueblo kivas also resemble some sort of a volcano, being built of mud and sticks so as to resemble a round mountain peak with a fire inside (the central stove). The typical tepees of the Plains Indians also resemble volcanoes even more, being conical in shape with a vent on top to let out the smoke of the inner fire. By the way, the word hogan came from the Spanish fogán meaning "stove", and implies an idea of "volcano", just as does the word "teepee".5

As we have shown above and elsewhere, the temples of Vesta — the Roman fire-goddess — and Hestia, her Greek counterpart, are close replicas of the topography of Paradisial Atlantis and Lemuria. Their temples were round and conical, with the Holy Fire perpetually burning in the altar at its center. This design simulates a volcano or, rather, the volcanic peak of Mt. Atlas, ready to explode and destroy Paradise at any moment. So do the the kivas of the Pueblo Indians, the hogans of the Navajos, and the teepees of the Plains Indians, which are all built so as to resemble a volcano, with the smoke issuing from the top, as in a volcano, and the Indians living inside. These volcanoes represent the mundus, the connection with the underworld from which the Indians theoretically emerged into this world, coming from the site of Paradise Destroyed where they formerly lived, before it was destroyed.

[FOOTNOTE: Essentially all Indians and, indeed many other peoples have traditions on having come from the netherworld or from heaven by means of a cave or some such feature. What this indeed means is that they came from the antipodes of the Americas, which is of course Indonesia, as is easy to see in a globe of the earth. In other traditions, they came, instead, by means of a giant canoe or raft, often identified to a giant snake or to the ark, a far likelier alternative. What my research shows, in a most unequivocal way, is that the Amerinds came via the Pacific Ocean, riding the Equatorial countercurrent, which leads directly from Indonesia to Ecuador, along the equinoctial line (the Equator). In all probability, earlier Indians (Paleo-Indians) entered via Bering Strait or whatever. These later Indians were the great civilizers, the ancestors of the Incas, the Mayas and the Aztecs and other such great civilizations of the Americas. They also brought agriculture to the Americas, as innumerous traditions attest.]

The idea of a fiery devastation connected with volcanoes is also evidenced by the fact that the Sun's House of the Navajo Indians is first painted with soot obtained from burnt grass, and them covered with the other colors. Moreover, its place is often described as immersed in a perpetual fog and darkness, such as the ones that result from a volcanic explosion of importance, such as the ones of the Toba and the Krakatoa volcano which we have been associating with the demise of Atlantis-Eden.

the mountain fallen away

As we saw above, the Central Mountain is also called "Mountain-fallen-away" or "Sky-reaching-butte". The ritual for the construction of figure of this butte is described thus:

"This butte is not constructed of anything common... First, clay for pots is built into a tapering cone, but not to a point... After this is made,... black from burned herbs is sprinkled over, in order to represent darkness... On the flat top is a small black circle and, across this, a red cross representing the fire inside". [Bernardo: Isto é Citação, eu acho. Conferir no original]

In other words, we have an exact miniature of a volcanic peak covered by soot and enveloped by dark smoke. We can compare the Navajo sandpaintings with the ones from the Mayas, shown in Fig 4 below. This figure is taken from a Mayan Codex. Except for the different style, the conception is exactly the same as that of the Navajo mandala of Fig. 2. At the four corners, we have the Four Trees of Life, each attended by two Guardians, each having a bird sitting on top, exactly as in certain Navajo sandpaintings. Here, the four trees of life replace the four subsidiary peaks of the Whirling Mountain, from whose tops the trees are said to grow.

At the center of the mandala — the Center of the World — we have the figure of a warrior wielding a three-pronged thunderbolt (or vajra). This figure closely evokes the similar ones of Zeus and Shiva, likewise three-pronged. This warrior is the Sun or, perhaps, his "son", who is indeed his renewed avatar. And the three-pronged vajra (thunderbolt) wielded by the personage is indeed the three-peaked mountain Trikuta, the same as Mt. Meru, the Holy Mountain of Paradise.

In the previous footnote we saw how, in India, the words for "thunderbolt" (ulka) and for "volcano" (ul-kan) are more or less synonymous. Hence, the thunderbolt-wielding god here portrayed is indeed a personification of the three-peaked, volcanic mountain of Paradise (Trikuta). Such a visual wordplay — which does not obtain in Amerindian languages or any others — can only have originated in India. The conclusion is also that the similar themes in the other mythologies of the world are also consequently of Hindu origin, unless contrary evidence is obtained.

The name of the "Mountain-fallen-away" is a direct translation of the Hindu originals which figure in innumerous myths under names such as that of "Decapitated Mountain". This mountain is no other than Mt. Meru or, more exactly, Mt. Kumeru, the Holy Mountain of Paradise. The name in question is also an exact translation of that of Mt. Atlas, which is formed of the Greek prefix a, meaning "not", and the radix tla, meaning "to bear out", "to withstand".6

In other words, the name of Mt. Atlas indeed means "the one who did not withstand" or, what is the same thing, "the mountain that fell away" (collapsed), just as did the one of the Navajos. In turn, the Greek name of Atlas derives directly from the Sanskrit Atala or Atalas, the name of a Hindu sunken Paradise which has exactly the same signification, and which was the actual archetype of Atlantis.

the twins and the skull mountain of the aztecs

The Primordial Twins are, likewise, the central figures of the Popol Vuh, the classic Mayan saga. The Mayas too have the Four Guardians (called Bacabs) which they equate to the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. They also speak, as do the Hindus and the Navajos, of the Four (or Five) Eras of Humanity, each corresponding to one of the Guardians.

An Aztec mandala similar to the ones of the Navajos and the Hindus is shown in Fig. 5. In it, the Central Mountain is replaced by a skull, likewise placed at the Center of the mandala. This Skull Mountain corresponds to the one formed by the skull of Dadhyanch in Hindu myths, and to that of Adam in Judeo-Christian mythology. The skull of Adam is said, like the one of Dadhyanch, his archetype, to have fallen from Paradise above. It fell in the center of Jerusalem, itself the Center of the World, and formed Mt. Golgotha or Calvary ("Skull"). Adam's skull was later found at the feet of Christ's Cross when its ground was being dug in order to fix the Cross to the ground.

As in the traditions just mentioned, the Mayas have a high reverence for the Skull Mountain, which they associated with the crystal skulls they worshipped, and of which several magnificent exemplars were found inside the Mayan temples and pyramids. Interestingly enough, Adam's skull, like that of Dadhyanch was said to be made of quartz crystal or, rather, of crystal-clear diamond, whose Greek name is precisely Adamas ("Untamable"). Coincidences? Can you really believe it?

Interestingly enough the Skull Mountain of the Aztecs is also topped by a Cross, just as is also that of the Navajos and the one of the Mayas shown above. Many other similarities exist between the Amerindian Cosmogonic symbols and those of the Ancient World. But their discussion is left for a better occasion, and a more discreet arena, for certain things can not be told to all. However, what we just saw, is hopefully sufficient to convince the reader of the reality of what we claim concerning the reality of Atlantis-Eden.

Finally, we return to the Hindu-Tibetan mandalas discussed further above. These mandalas are usually done by painting (on cloth) or, more often, by sandpaintings identical in technique with those of the Navajos and the Pueblos. This type of Hindu mandala — such as the ones shown in Fig. 3 above — is called Shveta-Dvipa (or "Pure Land") Mandala or, yet, Kalachakra ("Wheel-of-Time") Mandala.7

These mandalas represent, as do the Amerindian ones just discussed, Mt. Meru as the Central Mountain of Paradise. Most often, Mt. Meru is shown as a four-sided pyramid with the same four colors as those of the Navajo mandalas. In some instances, Mt. Meru is represented as a cone or a four-sided pyramid flanked by its four subsidiary peaks, just as in the Amerindian mandalas.

These four subsidiary peaks represent the Four Pillars of the Earth. These are placed at its four corners, around the Central Pillar, Mt. Atlas, the Pillar of Heaven. In real terms, the Four Pillars are the Pillars of Hercules, placed two in the Far Occident (Gibraltar) and two at the Far Orient (the Strait of Sunda, in Indonesia). In Egyptian mythology, these Four Pillars are quaintly represented as the four members of Nut (the Sky Goddess) planted on the ground, and two in the Orient, two in the Occident, just as in the present case.

What else but diffusion can account for this perfect identity in design, in symbolic meaning and even in rendition technique (sandpainting) between the mandalas of the two distant continents? Can anyone really believe that this remarkable coincidence may be attributed to chance or, worse still, to an inborn feature of the human brain, imprinted on the human unconscious, as some will? If so, why do other nations far closer in time and distance than the ones we are discussing never hit on the same ideas and concepts? How come most of us have no idea whatsoever on the real meaning of the symbols and rites we endlessly worship only because our ancestors did so?

Moreover, if these archetypes were imprinted somehow, except miraculously, this imprinting could only have been done as the result of a direct observation of actual facts, shocking enough to get imprinted so deeply in our minds. If so, Atlantis, far more than sheer myth, is pure reality. And certainly a most memorable one to be remembered so long after its demise, when impressive civilizations such as those of Sumer and of the Indus Valley became utterly forgotten until their remains were dug out of the ground by archaeologists.

Hence, one way or the other, in our opinion, the tradition of Atlantis and, hence, of Paradise, can only correspond to actual fact. How else can we account for its central presence in the traditions of essentially all nations of the world, from the Amazonian jungles to the deserts of North Africa, and from the Indies to the distant European continent? How else but by diffusion could the myth of Paradise Destroyed have reached the Americas in precisely the same details as it existed in the Old World? And if so, how else but in Pleistocenic times, when, according to the scientific consensus, the two worlds still connected, this connection (the Bering Passage) having been severed for ever after, until Columbus reestablished it, at the end of the 15th century?

an ancient technique of projective geometry

A final point we wish to moot out is, again, one of technique. Sophisticated techniques such as sandpainting or Projective Geometry are hardly ever the result of different, independent inventions. Their presence usually means transference, through direct contact. A close comparison of the mandalas shown in our figures reveals a peculiar fact. All are done by means of a technique of Projective Geometry called "side-projection" or "side-elevation". The four lateral features, in the vertical, are hinged to the sides, and are shown in front view, rather than from above, in plan view, as is the case of the central feature.

It is rather unlikely that such a technically sophisticate and highly conventional rendition could be passed down the generations as a simple innate memory, dating from the primordial eras of mankind. Besides, this technique, as shown above, exclusively applies to the depiction of Paradise as the Primordial Center and, as far as we know, to no other situation. Such is also the case with sandpainting, an unusual technique, to say the least. In fact, as we showed above, the use of sand is intended to show the ephemeral nature of all things, Paradise included. And this concept pervades Hinduism, which centers its eschatological doctrines on it.

As is clear, these doctrines originated in the Old World and thence diffused to the New one somehow. Even the Celestial Jerusalem — another such Center or Paradise — is represented according to this peculiar mode of projection. So are certain Hindu Paradises such as Vaikuntha (Indra's Paradise), which is clearly the archetype of the Celestial Jerusalem. Likewise with the Paradise illustrated in the Kalachakra mandalas, which is no other than Shvetadvipa, the White Island of many traditions. And it was precisely in this White Island that the white races originated, as we argue elsewhere in detail.

Hence, once more, we are led to reject any explanation of the remarkable coincidences shown above based on "innate archetypes" or "supernatural revelation", as proposed by some. Indeed, we here really have a case of "revelation". But the "Angels" or "Civilizing Heroes" are quite real indeed, and not at all a figment of someone's imagination. They are the all too humans who fell desperately in love with the daughters of the (other) humans. They are the survivors of the cataclysm which destroyed and sunk away Atlantis, the true site of Paradise. And they are the fallen "gods" or "angels" or "titans" who civilized the other nations, and who were so admired as to be deified and worshipped ever after.

Of course, this Paradise — call it Atlantis, Eden, Yvymaraney, Shveta-dvipa, Aztlan, Tollan, Atala, or Land of the Sun — was never found before because it sunk away in the Flood, and disappeared forever, just as told in the Bible. But it survived in Man's imagination and in the religious rites and sacred traditions of peoples everywhere. This blessed place was called the Terrestrial Paradise, and has nothing to do with the imaginary Celestial Paradise promised the dead by the official religions, and which is a purely spiritual reality.

In fact, we find it extremely paradoxical that most people, while firmly believing in the reality of the Celestial Paradise, are highly reluctant to accept the reality of the Terrestrial Paradise of which all traditions speak, the Judeo-Christian ones included. A highly irrational behaviour, is it not? And this is indeed the result of conditionment, of a reflexive behaviour called "imprinting" or "superego" by the specialists. A behaviour akin to the one of Pavlov's dog, which could not stop salivating years after the incentive was cut off.

It is true that this Paradise, Atlantis, has also not been found up to now. But this is not because it does not exist or left no traces whatsoever, but because it has only been sought in the wrong places, in the opposite side of the world from where it indeed lies. In fact, as all traditions affirm, when correctly interpreted, Atlantis-Eden indeed lay in the Land of Dawn, in the Island of Fire that is obviously full of volcanoes, as its name attests.

This island is also the Land of Sati (or Dawn or Vesta), the Great Mother who committed suicide by throwing herself in the funereal pyre of her husband, the volcano god. And this beautiful allegory — which was turned into the Hindu ritual of sati ("sutee") which so shocked the Europeans in India — is merely a personification of the primordial engulfment of Atlantis by its fiery volcano, whose giant caldera opened to swallow it. Of course, this swallowing refers to the capital city only, which was built around the volcano, as is so often the case. But the cataclysm had global proportions, and ended up causing the end of the Pleistocene Ice Age, and the sinking of the entire continent, as we argue elsewhere in detail.

seek, and ye shall find

The only viable explanation for the identity of the Navajo traditions and the ones of India and Indonesia is the natural one of diffusion. And, as illustrated in their mandalas themselves, this diffusion starts from a center; the very Center portrayed there. Any other attempted explanation can only lead to paradox and obscurity, as they invariably have, up to now.

But, if the Center — the so-called Terrestrial Paradise — really existed, why not accept what Tradition obsessively tells us, and adopt the traditional names such as Atlantis, Lemuria, Eden, the Isles of the Blest, and so on? Why reject the reality of such places just because we deem the natives stupid and mischievous, and refuse to accept their holy traditions as true fact? Has the fact that we forgot our own traditions — the ones we repeat mechanically in our religious rituals, like apes, as a sort of Cargo Cult — something to do with our scorn of them? Or do we fear to be deemed even more stupid than the natives we oppress and rob, not only of their possessions, but even of their religious traditions, forcing them to accept our own white-suprematist, Judeo-Christian ones?

It is obvious that all our attempts to locate these holy sites in the Occident or in the Near East have so far failed miserably. Why not, then seek in the right spots, in the Far Orient so clearly mentioned in the Bible and elsewhere? It is in India and in Indonesia that Atlantis and Lemuria, the two Centers of Primordial Civilization are to be found, and nowhere else.

If we indeed want to find the site of Paradise — the supreme endeavor of all truly great sages of the past, as we argue elsewhere — we should do what the Heroes did, and search it in the East Indies. And if we do this, we shall find it. As a surplus, we shall also find out that all the Paradises of the ancients are but one and the same: that of Eden, in the region of India and Indonesia. Most of it sunk away, as we argue in detail elsewhere. The only thing that we, whites, have to lose is our delusion of grandeur, of having been first and foremost in history or even in God's designs. Are we ready to face that risk, and to accept the fact that we were not first, and that this glory indeed belongs to our darker brothers?

For, all true traditions are but one: the Primordial Tradition that came down to us from the dawn of Mankind as the legacy of our Atlantean forefathers. And this Tradition is that of Eden or Atlantis, precisely as related by Plato. Why should we persist in deeming Paradise and Atlantis unreal — an outright lie of our ancestors of old and of the stupid natives that know no better — when all the geological, the geophysical and the anthropological evidence unequivocally indicates that Atlantis indeed existed and was indeed the Paradise where humans originated and first rose to Civilization?

How can anyone seriously believe that the beautiful sandpainted mandalas of the Navajo Indians and their many symbolic counterparts in the Americas and elsewhere representing the Holy Mountain of Paradise in exactly the same way, the same sacred geometry, the same symbolism, and the same techniques (sandpainting, "side-elevation" projection, quadripartite symmetry) can have originated independently from the ones of India and Indonesia?

The only alternative explanation is through divine inspiration. But why would God cheat us all, and inspire a Paradise that never was but in our wildest dreams? I, for one, refuse to believe that God would cheat and delude us all with illusions and unreal chimaeras, just for fun. Why does the Bible tell, just as do the Navajo traditions, of a Terrestrial Paradise, if it only exists in the never-never-land of Heaven? How come the two distant traditions invented the same lie on opposite sides of the world, independently and more or less simultaneously?

More exactly, this enormous mass of evidence unequivocally points towards the Far Orient, the true Land of Sunrise, the Land of Dawn, our dawn, the dawn of Mankind. There, the Sun of Civilization and Intelligence first rose and shone, with the brightness of a thousand suns, as shiny and as scorching as the volcano that later destroyed it beyond repair. There the Phoenix first awakened and rose, crossing from the ancestral Heliopolis into its replicas elsewhere, into Egypt, the Near East, Polynesia, Europe, and even the distant Americas, as we just saw. And it is its light that illumes us all even today, for it was from there, from Atlantis-Eden that we learnt all things, just as the ancient traditions hold.

1 The origin of the Latin word Missa, from where the English "Mass" originated through the French Messe is obscure. Some claim it came from the formula Ite, Missa est, pronounced by the officiant priest at the end of the Mass, when the catechumens were dismissed. But the fact is, even if this origin is accepted, that the word relates to the idea of "emissary", "envoy" (Latin missus, emissus, related to "emissary", "mission", etc.). We believe that the word is also esoterically connected with the name of the Messiah and with the idea of "Mystery". Such is the case of feasts such as the Misias, the Mystery rituals celebrated in honor of Ceres, in Greece and Rome, commemorating the occasion when the goddess set out to rove the whole world searching for her disappeared virgin daughter, Kore. As usual, this event is but an allegory of the demise and disappearance of Atlantis itself.

Again, the word Missa also connects with the Latin messis ("crop") and with the idea of Christmas, when the Saviour was sent down to us. The mystic meaning is that the Celestial Envoys (Missi or Mystes) were sent out to the four corners of the world at the occasion of the Great Crop (Messis), that of Atlantis-Paradise. Ceres (Demeter) is indeed a personification of Lemurian Atlantis (Paradise), the "Virgin" (Kore) disappeared underground. And this memorable event resulted in the diaspora of the Atlanteans, who went out as emissaries (missus) and messiahs to civilize the whole world. Space does not allow a fuller exegesis of this complex subject here.

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2 Some of these beautiful mandalas can be seen in the Internet sites linked to above, or in books such as:

  1. F. G. Newcomb; G. Reichard, Sandpaintings of the Navajo Shooting Chant (N. York, 1975)
  2. M. M. Rhie; R. A. F. Thurman, Wisdom and Compassion, the Sacred Art of Tibet (N. York, 1991)
  3. P. Rawson, The Art of Tantra (London, 1973)

The significance of the mandalas is very seldom disclosed to non-initiates, particularly in its connection with Paradise and it Holy Mountain (Meru). Their simpler aspects can be studied in many books, the best of which are, in our opinion:

  1. G. Tucci, Teoria e Pratica del Mandala (Rome, 1969)
  2. D. Maclagan, Creation Myths (London, 1977).

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3 In reality, the four corners of the World correspond to the Four Continents (Eurasia, Africa, and the Two Americas). The fifth (and virtual continent) is the one which corresponded to Atlantis, and which is one that the geographers now call Australasia or, far less exactly, Austronesia or Oceania. Australasia is the huge, continental-sized extension of land to the south of southeast Asia that sunk underseas at the end of the Pleistocene, when the sea level rose by 100-150 meters in consequence of the melting of the immense glaciers that covered the Temperate Regions then. Australasia is now currently called Sundaland by experts such as zoogeographers and geologists who study the fauna and the geology of the region, an who came to the unequivocal conclusion that it was in fact emerse (sub-aerial) during the last Ice Age, in the Pleistocene, just as we have been arguing for two decades now. So, atlantis is evidently surfacing again, despite the occult forces bent on its censorship in the academias, the media, and the churches.

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4 Canopus (Alpha Carinae) was the South Pole Star some 14,000 years ago, while Vega (Alpha Lyrae), the main star of the Northern Hemisphere, was the North Pole Star of the same epoch. This epoch was the one of Atlantis' foundation, as we demonstrate elsewhere in detail by means of strict, computer-based, astronomical calculation. The Dravidas of that epoch — or, more exactly, the Atlanteans — navigated the high seas orienting themselves with the help of these two Pole Stars, as well as by "Canopic Jars".

These "jars" were indeed a clever form of compass, sextant and clepsydra of excellent precision. Hence, the association of Atlas and the Atlanteans with celestial navigation and with the Pole and the twin supports of the skies. Vega, the Northern Pole Star, is the star of the Great Mother, while Canopus, its dual and counterpart in the Southern Skies, represented the Great Father. These two Pole Stars — or Morning Stars, the stars of the dawn of humanity — are personified as the Twins of everywhere, and particularly, of the Navajo and the Tupi-Guarani Indians. In Egypt they were represented by Hathor and Horus (the Elder), in Greece by Castor and Pollux, in India by the Aswin Twins (Nakula and Sahadeva), in Sumeria by Enkidu and Gilgamesh, and so on.

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5 Webster gives its etym as derived from the Navajo qohan, meaning "house". More likely, this word is a corruption of hogan, originally a Pueblo word derived from the Spanish fogán ("oven"), by influence from hogar ("fireplace", "house"). A typical Navajo hogan closely resembles a round oven, being built of mud interspersed with wooden logs, in the form of a dome. The Spanish fogón, fuego, hogar, foco, fogata, etc., derive from the Latin focus, meaning "fireplace". And this word ultimately relates to the idea of "fire", "volcano". Ultimately, the words fogón (or hogón, hogan) directly relate to "volcano" (Cf. Latin vulcanus or volcanus).

Skeat links the Latin to the Sanskrit ulka, meaning "a fiery meteor". These, in turn derive from the Dravida ul-kan meaning "inner fire". The Sanskrit term is also related to loka (or uloka ), meaning "place" and more exactly, "fireplace". Moreover, the Skt. ulka derives from the radix ush ("fiery") of the name of Ushas (Dawn). Now, Dawn or Aurora is an epithet often used to designate Indonesia as the Land of Dawn. Dawn is also the same as Vesta (note that radix ush = vesh ), the Fire Goddess who killed herself in a fiery pyre, and as Sati, her Hindu counterpart, who did the same.

And, as we just said, these goddesses personify Atlantis and its destruction in the great conflagration associated with the Flood in many different traditions. As is clear, all things fit together to compound the myths, the symbols, and the names in question, leaving little room for doubting their Hindu origin. Indonesia is indeed both the Island of the Sun and the Island of Fire, that is, of volcanos, as we all know. As we commented above, the Navajo hogans imitate the Whirling Mountain itself, which they also call Hogan, that is, "Volcano", as we just saw.

Another curious etym is the one of "buccaneer", derived from the French boucan, meaning a type of oven or fireplace for smoking meat and preparing barbecue. Actually, the word boucan is of Tupian and Caribbean origin, and was adopted by the French buccaneers that infested the region. The word "barbecue" is also related to boucan, being derived from the Spanish barbacoa, itself a corrupted form of bar-boucan, meaning an elongated boucan. Perhaps the name of the bucaneers ultimately alludes to their Indonesian origins, rather than to the fact that they used boucans for preparing barbecues. The Indonesian Malays were much feared pirates in antiquity, and it is far more likely that their name indeed alludes to their origin there, in the land of the boucans (or boulcans = "volcanos").

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6 Mount Kumeru, the Decapitated Mountain, is the mountain of the Goddess, just as the Sumeru or Kailasa is the mountain of Shiva, her husband. The Goddess is often called by names meaning "mountain", such as Giri, Girika, etc.. As "the Decapitated One", Kali, the Great Black Mother, is called Chinnamastaka, a term that means just this same thing. Diodorus Siculus reports a tradition — which we comment elsewhere — according to which Atlas (or Hesperus, rather) was carried away by the North Wind when studying the stars on top Mt. Atlas, along with the top of the mountain. An identical tradition of India tells a similar story of Lanka, sunken likewise. As is clear, the Greek tradition originated in the East Indies, and allegorizes a giant volcanism.

Mount Meru is the Mountain of the Fallen Sun. This mountain is the same as the Biblical Mt. Sinai, a name that means, in Hindu tongues, "the Decapitated Mountain". The word is derived from the Dravida Cin-ai or Cin-ay, meaning "The Mountain of the Fallen Sun (or of Shiva)" or, yet, "the Mountain of the Decapitated Ancestors". This is the same etym as that of Mt. Kinabalu, the loftiest and the most holy mountain of the whole of Indonesia. Mt. Merapi, another famous volcano of the region (in Central Java) derives its name from Mt. Meru, being composed of Mer(u) + api ("fire"), in Indonesian.

Mt. Kinabalu is also considered the Mountain of the Dead Ancestors and the site of the defunct Paradise. Mt. Kinabalu is literally a butte (or "decapitated mountain"). The name derives from the Dravida, the Holy Tongue of the region, and means "The Split Mountain" (Kina-palu) or, yet, "The Mountain of the Dead Ancestors" (Kina-paru), precisely the same as the etyms just given. The radix cin- is also the same as the one of Cinnamastaka, the decapitated goddess. It also figures in the name of China, in fact derived from the Skt. cina. And this is indeed a reference to the fact that China was part of the now sunken continent of the region, as shown in my map of Pleistocene Southeast Asia.

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7 "Pure Land" (Shveta-dvipa) is the name of the Hindu Paradise. It is also called Saka-dvipa ("White Island"). Its name also means "Evil-less land", precisely the same etym as that of the Yvymaraney, the Paradise of the Apopocuva Guaranis of Brazil. Clearly these Indians, like the Navajos, obtained their myths from primeval India and Indonesia, in the dawn of times. More probably, these Indians brought these myths along when they migrated to the Americas driven by the cataclysm that wiped away their pristine Paradise. This destroyed homeland was called Aztlan (Atlantis?) by the Aztecs, and was said to lay in the Orient, the traditional designation of Indonesia, the Land of the Rising Sun. The Mayas had identical traditions, and called the place Tollán, another corruption of Atalan (or Atlantis), "the Land of Atlas".

Please note that we do not claim that the Indians entered the Americas via the Pacific Ocean exclusively. But their civilizers did, as their own legends assert. The majority of the Amerindian peoples probably came in via the Bering Strait, as the North American anthropologists normally affirm. But a substantial part of the Amerinds — particularly those of a white race such as the Incas, that we discuss elsewhere — also came in via the Pacific Ocean and Polynesia, all the way from the Indies, just as did the Polynesians themselves. Even today, the elders of certain tribes of the Pacific coast of North America and elsewhere look towards the west and the setting sun, anticipating the return of their Saviour whom they know will come from their Far West, which is indeed the Far East of the peoples of the Old World.

Another substantial fraction of the Amerinds came in, as Paul Rivet and other anthropologists of note affirm, via the South Pole. They came from Australia, into the southern tip of South America. [Addition in Dec. 2001: Some recent discoveries by Brazilian anthropologists have just disclosed the fact that some of the earliest Brazilian aborigines were in fact Australoid, that is, black-skinned, like the Australians. So, this itinerary seems to have been confirmed by actual paleoanthropological fossils. Moreover, these negroid Amerinds apparently originated in Southeast Asia, the very site of Eden, according to our contention. And they apparently came in several different waves, and had several distinct colorations. The date, that of 11,500 years ago, suggests a connection with the Atlantean cataclysm. It seems everybody was fleeing the destroyed region, which apparently had all four colors of humans. Interestingly enough, the discovery was made very near my hometown, Belo Horizonte. Some more news on the interesting subject may be obtained by clicking here. And it also seems that the Bering Passage theory is being dropped by many specialists now as impracticable.

In fact, the Indians of America apparently came in from several different places and in several migratory waves down the uncountable millennia. These migrations started perhaps as early as 30,000 years ago, if not more, as some recent finds all over South America are unequivocally showing. The unity of the Amerindian races is an illusion, and these range from blond, blue-eyed nations to coppery to nearly Melanesian and Negroid types, and from tall giants to pygmies, as we argue in detail elsewhere

The name Kalachakra (or "Wheel of Time") given this mandala by the Hindus and Buddhists also means "Black Whirlpool", a name that designates the Vadava-mukha, the giant maelstrom we discussed further above. The Vadava-mukha corresponds to the giant caldera of the Krakatoa volcano, the very one that destroyed Atlantis. Very definitely, the ancient Hindus and Buddhists associated their destroyed Paradise with Atlantis. So did also the Amerindians who, as we saw, utilized the same symbolism as the Hindus in their esoteric rituals concerning the reenactment of their origins in Paradise.

The name of Paradise changes from place to place, as it was often translated into the local languages when the myths were incorporated to the local religious traditions. But the etymologies were preserved or adapted, and correspond to the usual ones of Hindu myths and traditions. Names such as "Golden Island", "White Island", "Pure Land", "Island of Fire", "Island of the Sun", "Whirling (or Polar) Mountain'', "Skull Mountain", etc. belong both to Amerindian traditions and to Hindu-Tibetan ones. In particular, the "Skull Mountain" is the Mt. Calvary (or "Skull", in Hebrew), the Holy Mountain on whose top Christ was crucified, according to Christian traditions. The fact that, as we saw further above, we find the identical myth in Amerindian America and in Tantric Hinduism and Buddhism should be a sobering reminder of our common origins in paradisial Atlantis (Lemuria), in the dawn of times.

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