If it is Atlantis, it's gotta
be located in the Atlantic Ocean.
In the present document we gather, in the form of a Checklist, some of the most important pieces of evidence that
we have mustered on the location of Atlantis over the many years in which
we have been researching the subject. This Checklist shown below
is extremely instructive, as it allows the direct, synoptic comparison of
complex information without the encumbrance of wordy arguments and elaborate
justifications. Size and space do not allow a detailed discussion of the many
issues covered here or the presentation of the vast amount of information
we have examined during the course of our researches.
It should also be noted that our theories and our pioneer
discoveries are fast being confirmed to an amazing extent by all sorts of
sensational discoveries of sunken structures in both India and China and the
Southeast Asia region. So much so, that many atlantologists who formerly espoused
theories such as Pole Shift and an Antarctic Atlantis have now switched to
our own views, which they often tend pass as their own discoveries. Moreover,
recent climatological and geological researches — for instance, on the
date of the cataclysmic end of the last Ice Age and on the rapidity of sea
level rise at the very date preconized by Plato — are fast confirming
our theory that Ice Ages are often initiated and terminated by major volcanic
eruptions and volcanic paroxysms of a type now associated with so-called Heinrich
Events. This is precisely the type of positive feedback mechanism that we
postulated over two decades ago, when we started our researches.
NOAA maps of the seafloor of the region of the South China
Sea — obtained by spy satellites from outer space, and only recently
divulged — have also dramatically confirmed the exactitude of our maps
of the Sunda Shelf and other submerged areas published elsewhere in this page.
The impact of my publications and researches has been so large that several
researchers — who formerly espoused different theories such as Pole
Shift and an Antarctic Atlantis — have stealthily abandoned their former
views and discreetly moved to our views which they often tend to misappropriate
as their own.
The result has been a great revival of the public interest
on Atlantis and its search. Over a hundred books and documentaries have recently
been published on the issue, and several expeditions have been launched in
order to research several possible locations, including our own. Atlantis
is, for all practical purposes, currently resurging from the waves. Very few
now doubt its reality and its connection with Eden and other such Paradises
of the universal traditions. Even the reality Flood — who most scientists
derided as ridiculous and impossible up to a few years ago — is presently
being seriously considered now that I pointed out its identity with the cataclysmic
end of the last Pleistocene Ice Age and the exact coincidence of its date
with the one of 11,600 BP [Before Present] stated by Plato in his famous dialogues
The readers who pause to ponder the matter over by themselves
instead of merely listening to the often specious arguments presented by other
researchers will no doubt conclude that no other location than the South China
Sea and Sundaland fit Plato's description: a sunken continent; a tropical
location; elephants, horses, pineapples, coconuts and bananas; an abundance
of metals and gemstones of all sorts; majestic mountain ranges; an immense
plain now sunken; advanced agricultural and hydraulic engineering techniques;
an extensive network of canals used for both irrigation and navigation; two
or three crops per year; monsoonal rains; an incredibly large population for
the early epoch; volcanisms and earthquakes; navigational expertise, etc..
Above all, one should keep in mind the antiquity of Man's existence in the
region and the fact that Agriculture and Civilization very probably originated
there, as is fast becoming evident.
Of course, the reader may reach different conclusions than
ours on certain specific matters. But we are confident that these will not
change the overall picture that we are arguing here. However, we will be delighted
to discuss these with the reader via our contact page,
and will eventually post both the question and and our answer in this page,
giving due credit to the inquirer. We also thank in advance the readers and
critics kind enough to devote their attention to our work and, particularly,
those who take the trouble to point out its errors to us or to our editor.
In such a schematic presentation as the present one, we had
to make the decisions whether the specific issue in question was factual,
doubtful or unsupported by the evidence. In the Checklist we mark the positively
supported items with a tick (),
the doubtful ones with a question mark ()
and the negative or unsupported ones with an x ().
In the present work we also briefly comment on the several
issues (a total of 32) that we analyze in our Checklist. Due to problems of
space, this discussion is reduced to the barest minimum, and the reader desirous
of more details is referred to our book on Atlantis or to our other papers
and essays on the matter. As the reader can see for himself in the Checklist, only the East Indies that is, India and Indonesia
fit the data to perfection. We did not include here locations such
as the Indus Valley and South India, as they were not yet cogitated when we
wrote the document. In fact, these Indian locations were secondary sites and
colonies of Atlantis proper, the true cradle of the majestic Indian civilization.
When Atlantis went under, its people was forced out, and moved to India and
elsewhere where they proceed to rebuilt their Paradise Lost.
1) located in the atlantic ocean
Plato was very specific on the fact that Atlantis was located
in the Atlantic Ocean. Indeed, this ocean took this name because it was deemed
the "Ocean of the Atlanteans", as Plato himself declares. Hence,
Mediterranean locations such as Troy, Crete (Thera), Carthage, the Bosporus,
etc., automatically disqualify as possible sites of Atlantis.
However, one should carefully recall that what the ancients
called by the name of Atlantic Ocean, or others such as Outer Ocean, Kronius
Oceanus, Mare Magnum, Mare Oceanum, etc., was not the same one we nowadays
address by that name. As we discuss in detail elsewhere [LINK TO SCIENTIFIC
EVIDENCE], the Atlantic Ocean (or simply "Ocean") of the ancients
of the times of Plato, Herodotus, Aristotle and others was the whole of the
earth encircling ocean.
In particular, this name applied to the Indian Ocean, as can
be seen in world maps such as the map
of Eratosthenes and the map
of Strabo. Erastosthenes actually divided the Atlantic Ocean into two
moieties, the oriental and the occidental. And Atlantis was of course located
in the Mare Atlanticum Orientale, the oriental half which we now
name Indian Ocean. Even more correctly, Atlantis was the divide of the Indian
and the Pacific Ocean, as shown in Fig. 1 further below [LINK]. Such
is the reason why Paradise — which is to say, Atlantis — is often
said to be an "island located in the middle of the seas". Further
below (itens 8 ad 9), we will see teh reason why Atlantis is called an "island".
This difference in nomenclature is essential, for it ties
with the root of the problem of Atlantis, and explains why all researchers
so far have failed to find the true site of Atlantis. We present elsewhere
maps which explicitly show the Circular Outer Ocean named the Atlanticus
Oceanus. The ancients figured the world that is, the lands they
knew of (Eurasia and Africa), the so-called Old World or Oikumene as
a roughly circular plate surrounded all around by the Ocean ("Atlantic").
Outside this Circular Ocean, "containing" it, so to speak, was the
true "Continent", the Americas, which encircled it all around and
which Plato refers as the Peirata Ges.
It was in this Outer Continent that the ancients placed Eden
and other such legendary Paradises which they remotely connected with Atlantis.
Such is the case, for instance, of the map
of Cosmas Indicopleustes, which represents Paradise (Eden) in this way.
As a matter of fact, the very word "Ocean" derives from the Sanskrit
ashayana meaning "encircling all around". Hence, in the same
way that the Mediterranean regions are automatically discredited as possible
sites for Atlantis for they neither lie in the Atlantic Ocean nor outside
the Pillars of Hercules regions located in the Indian Ocean and the
Pacific Ocean must be included, for they indeed satisfy these two prerequisites,
since these oceans were formerly called "Atlantic".
Avienus basing himself on very ancient Phoenician sources
placed the Hesperides and the island of Geryon, Erytheia, "in
the Ocean of the Atlanteans". Now, from Avienus' and other detailed
descriptions, Erytheia lay in the Orient, in the Erythraean (or Indian Ocean),
to which it gave its name. So, we see that the name of "Atlantic Ocean"
or "Ocean of the Atlanteans" originally applied to the Indian Ocean.
This name was later transferred, first to both oceans and then confined to
the present Atlantic Ocean.
We conclude, hence, that Atlantis must be sought first of
all in the Indian and the Pacific Oceans, and only secondarily in what we
presently call "Atlantic Ocean", as this name was unduly applied
to it by the Greeks. In fact, the name of "Atlantic" applied to
the western ocean resulted from the mistaken notion espoused by the ancients
that it connected directly with the Pacific Ocean and the East Indies, which
they well knew to be the site of Paradise and the East Indies, its true location.
Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci and many other such explorers shared
this belief, and firmly thought that they could reach the East Indies and
its seas by sailing towards the west long enough. In other words, they
aimed to reach the Far East via the Far West, a real possibility, given earth's
sphericity, a fact well known of the best informed explorers.
2) seaports, navigation, irrigation canals
One of the most fascinating features of Plato's Atlantis
was the vast network of canals used for the double purpose of irrigating its
extensive agricultural plains and for the fluvial transportation of their
produce. The site of the capital of the Atlantean empire was crossed and surrounded
by these canals, forming a figure known as "Celtic Cross" or "Crossed
. This symbol is often confused with that of the Earth or even of the Sun.
But it indeed originally applied, as in ancient Egypt, to the land of Paradise
(To-wer). In fact, the symbol represents Paradise (Eden, etc.) with
its Four Rivers flowing into the Four Cardinal Directions, just as described
in the Bible. But this symbolism was in fact universal, as can be seen in
our page on The Whirling Mountain. [LINK].
This network of canals also contained dams and sluice-gates
to control the flow of the rivers. It was a marvel of hydraulic engineering,
the likes of which are only attested in the ancient Far East and, to a lesser
scale, in Incan America. Moreover, Plato specifically states that Atlantis
was a great naval power and that its many ships actively traded with the most
distant nations of the overseas. Hence, it is idle to suppose that powers
of limited naval abilities such as the Mayan empire or the Celtiberian nations
of that epoch or, even more, the Canaries and Northwest Africa could ever
have been the true site of Atlantis.
The Incas of Peru had a great naval ability, and there is
ample evidence confirmed by Thor Heyerdahl in his Kon Tiki expedition
that they made routine contacts with the Far East via the Pacific Ocean.
The Incas of Peru also maintained a regular commercial contact with the Mexican
empires. But their empire was located far up in the mighty Andes, and did
not include good seaports nor did the Incas base their economy on naval commerce.
Water is scarce in their region of the world, in contrast to what Plato affirms
On this item, we have qualified nations such as Troy, Celtiberia,
Tartessos, as well as those of the African and European Northwest, for they
are, at least mythically, very much connected with navigation. However, they
all present hardly any traces of the extensive network of canals described
by Plato, or any solid evidence of their early maritime ability. Incan Peru
also affords no concrete evidence of extensive seaports, though we recognize
its maritime skill. Perhaps these ports and canals were submerged in the cataclysm,
though any confirmatory evidence of this possibility is definitely lacking.
Crete was undoubtedly a maritime power, and so were the Scandinavian
nations with their world roving Vikings. The two Indies (India and Indonesia)
are acknowledged for their intensive trade with the ancient Middle East and
the Far East, and possibly even the Americas. The African Northwest was settled
by the Phoenicians, who had colonies in Tartessos, Carthage and Cadiz (Gadeira).
However, it is difficult to establish that such colonies indeed date from
Atlantean times, as the archaeological searches point to post-Bronze Age settlements
only. Indeed, these are so small as to suggest that they were mere outposts
of the Phoenicians, used for the re-supplying of their ships during their
frequent travels to the Indies, with which they maintained a regular commerce
from remotest antiquity.
On Antarctica and on some possible sunken Atlantic island
or continent we have no clear-cut, scientifically acceptable evidence, and
the matter awaits confirmation by the experts. Their pronouncements up to
now have unanimously affirmed that both notions are scientifically preposterous,
a conclusion that should not be taken lightly, as these guys are no fools.
Pole Shift is both a geological and a physical impossibility, as it violates
Angular Momentum Conservation, etc.. Moreover, Antarctica has been under ice
for about a million years and more. Forget Antarctica, and forget Pole Shift,
much as its former champions are fast doing.
As concerns the Atlantic seafloor, it has been scrutinized
to the decameter scale by both oceanographic ships and spy subs and satellites,
which never found any evidence whatsoever of sunken islands or, let alone,
sunken continents. The important thing to keep in mind is that the main feature
of Atlantis was its naval prowess and the impressive network of canals and
sluices for both navigational purposes, as well as for agricultural irrigation.
Such ancient wonders of hydraulic engineering are only find in the Far East
in places such as Angkor, and, perhaps, in the Amazonian extensions of the
Incan empire, as some recent discoveries in the region apparently indicate.
3) continental size and sacred geometry
Plato's text is somewhat confusing on the actual size
of Atlantis. And this confusion was intentional, as the true location of Atlantis
was a carefully kept secret. Indeed it should be understood that Plato speaks
of two Atlantises besides the third one, the capital city, the tiny island
which also bore that name. Plato spoke both of the true Atlantis and of the
"skeletal" realm he calls by the name of "Primeval Greece".
By such "Greeks" the enemies and vanquishers of Atlantis
Plato indeed means the Aryans and their long lost Aryanavarta ("Country
of the Aryans") that is indeed the sunken realm of Atlantis.
Actually, the "skeleton" of this primordial Atlantis
now forms the Indonesian archipelago, whose islands are the volcanic peaks
that remained above the water line when the immense expanse of the Elysian
Plains — the mythical name of Atlantis — sunk away under the sea.
These islands were then reduced to the Realm of the Dead known to the Greeks
as the Islands of the Blest (Makarioi Nesoi). But they formerly formed
a vast continent, now mostly sunken under the South China Sea. This huge piece
of land was, then, indeed "greater than Asia [Minor] and Libya [North
Africa] put together", precisely as Plato asserted of Atlantis [See Fig.1].
The second Atlantis of Plato and other mythographers is that
part of India whose remains can now be observed in the Indus and the Ganges
valleys. Both were the sites of magnificent civilizations such as those of
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. Plato also speaks of the Atlantean capital
called Atlantis by him and Poseidonis by several Atlantologists. This royal
capital indeed reserved for the nobility, the priesthood and the royal
guard has often been confused with the whole of Atlantis by a few researchers.
But is was only a small island, the sacred capital of the whole empire.
We find, to be sure, several capitals that imitated
or attempted to imitate the Atlantean capital. One such was the royal
capital of the Incas, located in an islet of Lake Titicaca, in the neighborhood
of Tiahuanaco (Bolivia). Another one was the island of Thera (Santorini),
perhaps the sacred capital of Minoan Crete, as some Atlantologists will. Troy
too was described by Homer as fitting this sacred paradigm, and was said to
have been submerged by the Flood after its destruction by the Bronze Age "Greeks"
of Homer's Iliad.
Schliemann's "Troy" in Turkey hardly fits this
standard description of atlantis's capital or even of Homer's Troy, as several
experts such as M. I. Finley have concluded. So, it is hard to see how it
could ever have been identified to either Plato's or to Homer's paradigm.
The Aztecan capital in Mexico, Tenochtitlán, also followed an inland
adaptation of the primordial model, with the Holy Mountain at the center (Mt.
Atlas) replaced by a pyramid, and the crossing and encircling canals replaced
by avenues and majestic gateways.
This Sacred Geometry is amply attested in the Far East (Angkor,
Borobudur, etc.). So, there can be little doubt that the model came to us
from the Far East, where it is so popular. Cruder copies are also found in
the Scandinavia and in Celtiberia, in monuments (cromlechs) such as Stonehenge
and the likes of it. The universality of this tradition attests the reality
of Atlantis as the prototype of the cities that follow the model of the "Celestial
Jerusalem", which also has precisely this shape, the one of the Crossed
Circle which we comment further below. In India and
Indonesia we find a profusion of entire cities and temple complexes such as
Angkor Thom, Angkor Wat and Borobudur, which were based on the model of Atlantis'
capital either in full size or as smaller, scaled down replicas.
As we discuss elsewhere [LINK], the Sacred Geometry of Atlantis'
capital city is itself a replica of the world, in an idealized form that dates
from remotest antiquity. The four quadrants of the Cross of Atlantis represent
the Four Corners of the World, that is, the Four Continents (Eurasia, Africa,
America and Australia). Likewise, the Center represents the continent of Atlantis,
sunken under the sea, and reduced to a tiny portion (Indonesia) of mere insular
proportions. (See also next item, below). As we already said, this sacred
shape also represents the Holy Mountain (Mt. Meru) seen from above with the
Four Rivers of Paradise flowing down its slopes until they reach the Circular
Ocean at the world's rim.
4) holy mountain and volcanoes
The essential feature of Atlantis was its Holy Mountain. This
mountain, which we just commented, was placed at the center of the capital
and was identified with Mt. Atlas himself in his role as "Pillar of the
Sky". As the legend goes, when this pillar collapsed, the sky fell down
upon the world, destroying and asphyxiating it. In reality this is an allegory
of the explosion of Mt. Atlas indeed a volcanic peak and of
the cataclysm that caused the end of the Pleistocene Ice Age, as we argue
in detail elsewhere. In other words, Atlantis' capital city was a replica
of the world itself, with the circular canal representing the world-encircling
ocean, and the two crossing ones representing the Four Rivers of Paradise.
The Holy Mountain that we find in essentially all religions
and sacred traditions concerning Paradise is indeed Mt. Atlas, the archetype
of them all. We encounter the Holy Mountain under names such as Mt. Meru in
the Indies, Mt. Calvary (or Golgotha) in Christianity, Mt. Qâf ("Skull"
= Calvary) in Islamism, Mt. Kailasa (idem) in Shivaism, Mt. Salvat (or Calvat
= "Skull") in Catharism, Mt. Olympus in Greece, etc.. all such derive
directly from the Atlantean model, both in the New and the Old Worlds. In
that context, please see our page on The Whirling Mountain of
the Navajos [LINK].
Mt. Olympus, for instance, derives its name from the Greek
Olmos Hippous, meaning "the Mountain of the Centaurs". Moreover,
the Centaurs (Khentarfos) derive their name and their myth from the
Gandharvas of India, where Mt. Meru is called "the Mountain of the Gandharvas".
This fact shows the Indian origin of the myths of ancient Greece. Again, the
Holy Mountain this time directly connected with an Atlas figure (Ayar
Cachi) turned to stone is also found in Peru as the Huanacauri of the
Incas. In fact, wherever we find the myth of the Holy Mountain of Paradise,
we are able to trace it back to Mt. Meru and the East Indies, that is, to
In symbolic form, the Holy Mountain is also represented as
a pyramid or an obelisk, or similar structures. These include artifacts such
as the pylons of Egyptian temples, the towers of the Babylonian ziggurats,
the spires of the Gothic cathedrals and the Hindu gopuras and pyramidal
temples. The pyramids above all the step pyramids of Egypt (Zozer's),
of Mexico, of Peru and of the Far East (China, Japan) are all replicas
of Mt. Meru, which is also shaped as a four-sided pyramid in Hindu traditions.
The pyramidal temples of India have all or most been destroyed
by the Muslim invaders, who replaced them with mosques and palaces. But many
have been reconstructed according to the former paradigm, that of the Holy
Mountain. However, the best examples which survived are located outside Indian
itself, for instance those of Angkor (Angkor Wat and Angkor Thom) and of Java
(Baphuon, Borobudur) which replicate not only the Holy Mountain, but the sacred
capital of Atlantis itself.
As we already said, the Holy Mountain of Atlantis, Mt. Atlas,
was a huge volcanic peak which exploded and collapsed, taking the sacred capital
under, in its wake. So, this subsidence is another essential feature of Atlantis
that cannot be forgotten when seeking for the site of Atlantis. To give a
specific example, the archetypal Jerusalem was characterized by the central
presence of Mt. Zion. This Holy Mountain is really the same as Mt. Sinai.
Mt. Sinai is, in the Book of Genesis, described as a terrifying volcano
whose "pillar of fire and smoke" actually guided the Israelites
in their exodus from the site of their former destroyed paradise. This paradise
which lay in Primordial Egypt (or Eden), rather than in the country
now so named is indeed Indonesia, the original homeland of the Jews.
Hence, it is a waste of time to seek Atlantis — and,
for that matter, Eden, the mystical "Egypt" — outside the
regions tormented by volcanism and earthquakes. Such regions are indeed quite
few in the world. First there is Thera, the favorite of the more scientifically
minded Atlantologists, precisely because of this feature. The realms of the
Incas and the Mayas is also frequently castigated by this type of event, but
apparently never in the scale preconized by Plato and others. The reason for
that is that their volcanoes are not of an explosive nature, in contrast with
those of the Far East, whose lava is rhyolitic, and hence highly viscous.
The same absence of explosive volcanism seems to be true of
Scandinavia and of Greenland and Antarctica. No volcanoes exist in Schliemann's
Troy, in Tartessos (Spain) and in Celtiberia (France and British Isles). India
too has no volcanoes, but is indeed frequently victimized by devastating earthquakes.
So, we are left, on this account, with the Indies and with Thera as probable
locations, and with the other volcanic regions of the globe as rather unlikely
candidates. These non-volcanic regions can perhaps be safely excluded from
Indonesia is the most volcanically active region in the whole
world. In fact, Indonesia is formed by thousands of volcanic peaks now turned
into islands, after the submergence of its lowlands. And the region is called
by the forceful name of "Belt of Fire". This ferocity is attested
within historical times by cataclysms such as the explosive eruption of the
volcanoes Krakatoa and Tambora, and of several others in the region of Indonesia.
Sunda Strait the site of the ferocious Krakatoa volcano is indeed
the giant volcanic caldera of this semi-submarine volcano. Lake Toba, in Sumatra,
is deemed earth's largest volcanic caldera, being fully 100 kilometers
Another immense volcanic caldera of the region, having a comparable
size, is the one of Lake Taupo, in New Zealand. All these giant calderas result
from huge volcanic explosions which occurred in relatively recent geological
times, some 75 kya (kiloyears ago). So, the geologic record of the region
indicates the reality of incomparably large disasters and the possibility
of worldwide cataclysms of fire and water of the nature described by Plato
and others in relation to paradisial Atlantis. And it has now been realized
that supervolcanoes such as the ones just mentioned are quite capable of triggering
Ice Ages, and have in fact done so many times in the past with their giant
The tektites that line a substantial portion of the oceanic
beds of the region (Indian and Pacific Oceans) with an immense strewn field
are a further evidence of still larger cataclysms there, in the farther past.
Tektites are believed to result from cometary or asteroidal impacts. And the
one in question here occurred at about 780 kya, that is, well within the times
of Man in the region. Tektites are glass beads, sometimes of a large size,
resulting from such huge impacts, which cause the melting and the ejection
of the silicic rocks that underlie earth's crust. The ones of the region
— found from Australia to Tibet, and from Madagascar to the Philippines
— are called Indochinites, and may attain several kilos.
5) tropical climate and two crops a year
The tropical, pleasant climate of Atlantis is one of the central
features of Plato's Atlantis. The fact that the great philosopher was
not idly inventing, but knew his marbles, is patent everywhere in his account.
To start with, there is the issue of the two crops a year that he specifically
mentions. The Greeks of Alexander were marveled by this fact when they witnessed
it in the Indus Valley.
Two crops a year generally of rice, wheat or barley
occur not only in the Indies, but almost everywhere in the Far East.
They are the result of a felicitous combination of events that is unique of
this vast region of the world. In the summer, the meltwaters of the Himalayas
and other mountain glaciers of the region provide the riverine floods that
are used to irrigate the crops. This is done by means of an artfully arranged
network of dams, canals and terraces quite like the ones described by Plato
as existing in Atlantis.
Such a feature is particularly observable in the Indus and
the Ganges valleys, not to mention Indonesia, China and neighboring regions.
It is only in Peru and the rest of the Incan empire that we find something
comparable in technology, even though of a far lesser scale.
The second yearly crop and sometimes even a third one
is afforded by the monsoon rains that fall abundantly in the region
during the winter months. The monsoon winds, loaded with moisture and coolness,
are also very useful for navigation. Again, they are a very special feature
of Paradise in texts such as those of Homer, of Hesiod and even of Josephus,
as well as of several other Classical authors. In fact, these winds are also
the cool breeze of the afternoon which God enjoyed in Paradise, in the company
The monsoon winds are mythically the same as the legendary
Boreas that blew from Hyperborea, the legendary site of Apollo's Island
of the Sun. This island is also called by names such as Delos, Hypereia, Erythia,
Phoenicia, Ortygia, Chemmis, etc.. In reality, all such islands were allegories
of the paradisial island of Taprobane (Sumatra), which Pliny and others equated
with the otherworld.
Many other facts mentioned in the Critias confirm the tropical
nature of Plato's Atlantis: the rain forests, the palm-trees, coconuts,
rose woods, incense trees, pineapples, coconuts, bananas, etc.. Of course,
there is also Plato's mention of "this felicitous island under the
sun". This expression means, in ancient parlance, the same as the modern
one of "equatorial", that is, "lying directly under the path
of the sun in the skies".
We must recall that Plato's Atlantis flourished during
the last glaciation, an epoch when global temperatures were 5° to 10°
C below the present. At that time, most temperate and polar regions were gelid,
and entirely covered by mile thick glaciers. So, great civilizations
necessarily based on agriculture and cattle herding could only exist
in tropical and equatorial regions such as those of South India, Southeast
Asia, Indonesia, Central and South America, and North and Central Africa and
the Near East. The temperate regions of the earth had to await the end of
the Ice Age in order to start developing agriculture and, hence, civilization.
The advocates of icy regions such as the North Sea, Antarctica,
the Arctic region, and such, are forced into appealing to farfetched explanations
such as Pole Shift and instant Continental Drift. But these events are wholly
outside the realm of science, as they contradict all that is known of Geology.
Hence, they should not be accepted unless some factual evidence develops to
support their farfetched claim. This evidence and the theory that would
back it up has also to explain the observed fact that glaciers such
as those of the Himalayas, of Greenland, of Antarctica, etc., have been on
place for several millions of years.
Likewise, equatorial forests such as those of the Brazilian
Amazonia, Africa and Indonesia have existed for millions of years, gradually
developing their enormous variety of species, in a delicate ecological equilibrium
that is very easily disrupted by even a slight interference. If the Pole had
indeed shifted in recent geological times, these forests would have been carried
into the temperate or the polar regions of the world, alongside with Atlantis.
The fact that these forests still exist, as they have existed for millions
of years is proof sufficient that Pole Shifts never occurred in times within
the Atlantean horizon.
So, scientifically minded Atlantologists would better forget
about Pole Shift and Arctic or Antarctic locations for Atlantis, if they indeed
want to be taken seriously by the academic community. It is unscientific to
bend facts in order to fit farfetched theories, instead of bending the theories
in order to fit facts.
By the way, there is a frequent confusion among several of
the proponents of these obstreperous ideas. The earth has both a Magnetic
Pole and a Celestial Pole. One is determined by its magnetism, and changes
rather often over geologic time. But its shifting causes only very minor effects
on life and over the earth's crust. The other one is dictated by earth's
spinning in relation to the stars, and is essentially invariant due to the
Conservation of Earth's Angular Momentum. In other words, the earth behaves
as a sort of giant gyroscope or spinning top, and tends to keep fixed the
direction of its axis of rotation relative to the stars, even if disturbed
by considerable external influences such as changing icecaps.
Only a major interference say, a giant meteoritic collision
of planetoidal size would cause a major shift of earth's Celestial
Pole. There are no traces whatsoever that this has happened in the last million
years, the times of Homo sapiens, as we just said. Moreover, the
detailed observations of rock magnetism, of palynological analyses (pollen
studies), of sedimentology (marine and lacustrine deposits) and of varve analysis
(lake level yearly variations) leave no doubt at all that Pole Shift is indeed
an illusion of frustrated amateur Atlantologists that have despaired of ever
finding the lost continent of Atlantis anywhere in this real world of ours.
6) large population
Plato gives several clues that the population of Atlantis
was indeed huge for the epoch in question. This fact alone rules out most
regions of the ancient world such as Europe, North Asia and North America,
which were icy deserts in the Glacial Age inhabited by meager tribes of semi-savage,
famished hunter gatherers. This requisite also precludes North Africa and
the Near East, which were mainly desertic in that epoch. We are thus left
with Central and South America, as well as with the Indies and Southeast Asia,
tropical locations where rains were abundant, rendering agriculture possible
Agriculture and Animal Domestication as contrasted
with hunting and gathering are the two primordial requisites for the
development of city life, and large, stable, civilized societies. Such large
communities were rarity in the ancient Old World outside Egypt, Mesopotamia,
India and the Far East. During the Pleistocene epoch and the Paleolithic,
they probably did not exist outside Atlantis proper.
The population of Atlantis can be estimated from the facts
disclosed by Plato. First of all, we have the great extension of the country,
its fabled fertility, its two yearly crops and the immense network of irrigated
culture grounds. These were, says Plato, about 600 x 400 km² . If we
take the typical productivity of Asian agriculture (rice), we get an yearly
crop for the region of something like 10 to 20 million tons of rice, plus
a corresponding plurality of other agricultural and pastoral products, even
letting most of the land remain fallow.
Now, this is enough rice and produce to feed a population
of 15 to 30 million people and still leave an ample surplus for exports. These
are numbers that equate well with the ones actually observed in the South
Asian regions. So, we see that Plato was speaking of reality rather than inventing
anything. In all probability, these crops were partly exported for cash, affording
the legendary riches of Atlantis. These exports of food and the proverbial
abundance of the Isles of the Blest (Atlantis) are commemorated in many myths
and traditions which we comment elsewhere.
We can also estimate the population of Atlantis by the data
given by Plato concerning Atlantis' armed forces. Plato gives these numbers
in detail, which total 1,160,000 soldiers. If we consider that one half of
the population was female and that about a half of the males were children
or elders and that, furthermore, in all probability, no more than 1/4 or so
of the adult male population was actually conscripted, we come up with a population
of some 20 million people, in fair agreement with the number estimated above.
This number is huge according to the norm of the prehistoric
Old World, particularly when we consider that Atlantis flourished at an epoch
that predated the Neolithic Age. Hence, just as Plato states, no nation of
the epoch could oppose the might of Atlantis. Such is particularly the case
of Athens, which could deploy no more than 30 to 50 thousand men even at the
peak of its power, in the times of Pericles. But we must excuse the understandable
patriotism of Plato who was, above all, writing for a Greek audience.
We thus conclude that the huge population of Atlantis uniquely
points to the Far East the only place where such large armies could
be mustered in remotest antiquity for the reasons pointed out above.
In fact, the ancient Greeks, like other nations, marveled at the giant size
of the armies of the East, and particularly that of Porus, the king of one
of India's realms supposedly conquered by Alexander the Great.
One must also realize that Atlantis flourished during the
Paleolithic and that its demise coincided with the rise of the Neolithic and
the introduction of agriculture. It is fast becoming evident that Agriculture
was invented in the Far East over ten thousand years ago, with rice —
attested by 12,000 years BP in China — being one of the first cultures
known. The Neolithic Revolution started all of a sudden, some 10,000 years
BP on a worldwide scale, after almost a million years of Paleolithic standstill.
It is tempting to conclude that the Neolithic Revolution was
in fact fostered by the Atlanteans when they were forced out of their blisfull
cocoon by the cataclysm. There they lived in an ecological equilibrium, without
expanding or encroaching on their less advanced neighbors or even attempting
to civilize them. In other words, it seems that the Atlanteans believed that
"small is beautiful" and that they practiced a policy of "live
and let live", just as we are presently learning to do. In other words,
it seems that the Atlanteans were in fact the Civilizing Heroes — or
"angels" or "gods" — of which all nations in the
world speak: Viracocha, Sumé, Quetzalcoatl, Kukulkán, Tubal
Cain, Erichthonius, Cadmus, Thoth, Aeneas, the Oannés, and so on.
7) the sacred geometry of atlantis'
The city of Atlantis the holy capital and royal citadel
of the vast empire of the same name had a Sacred Geometry that became
the paradigm and model for all other subsequent capitals. The geometry of
the city is described in detail by Plato as well as by other mythographers,
symbolists and atlantologists. Basically, it follows the model of the so-called
"Celtic Cross" or "Atlantean Cross", a circle with crossing
diameterswhich we already discussed.
This sacred glyph is often equated with the Sun or the Earth,
which it came to symbolize in Astrology. But it is indeed the emblem of Atlantis
which some Atlantologists such as Otto Muck call by the name of "Cross
of Atlantis". In Egypt, as we said above, this symbol was the hieroglyph
of Paradise (Punt), as well as of the Holy Eucharist (the Sacred Bread). This
idea of "Primordial Sacrifice" associated with the sacred bread
is invariably connected with Atlantis and its doom.
At the center of Atlantis' capital lay the Holy Mountain
(Mt. Atlas), which is no other than the sacred mountain of the Hindus (Mt.
Meru). Mt. Meru is pyramidal-shaped, and is indeed the archetype of all pyramids
and pyramidal sacred mountains everywhere. These pyramids are often stepped,
a geometry that parallels the one of the mountains of Atlantis (the Indies),
which were stepped with terraces intended for agricultural purposes, as we
already discussed further above. These agricultural
terraces are even today quite common in the whole Far East. They preserve
the water and the soil, allowing agriculture in the steep mountain slopes
which are typical of volcanic regions such as Southeast Asia and Indonesia.
This sophisticate agricultural technology passed to the Americas (Incan Peru),
attesting both its enormous antiquity and America's prehistoric contacts with
the Far East in prehistoric times.
The fourfold division of the Cosmos characterized by the pyramidal
shape dates from Atlantean times. It is found just about everywhere in both
the Old and the New Worlds, always in precisely the same context. Hence, the
pyramid symbolism also necessarily predates the end of the Pleistocene, when
the Old World became effectively separated from the Old according to the standard
doctrines of academics on the Beringian Passage and on the rise of Amerindian
civilizations. Except for the Atlantean hypothesis, no other scientific explanation
is able to account for the commonality of pyramid symbolism and of terraced
agriculture in both the Americas and the Far East. The usual hypotheses of
"sheer coincidence" will not do here, as the odds are impossibly
We also find this fourfold symbolism in the Hindu four castes,
as well as in their pyramidal-shaped temples and, particularly, in their sacred
mandalas portraying Mt. Meru, their Mountain of Paradise. Indeed, mandalas
such as those of the Pure Land (Shveta Dvipa) or Wheel-of-Time (Kalachakra)
type portray Paradise as seen from above. At the center of the circle that
represents the circular canal surrounding Atlantis, we have Mt. Meru represented
as a stepped, square pyramid. Some such mandalas are shown in our page
on the Whirling Mountain of the Navajos .
Returning to the mandalic symbolism of Mt. Meru. Next we have
the triple wall with its four doors, one at each of the Four Cardinal Directions.
Around it all, we have the circular River Oceanus. This circular river is
often represented as the Ouroboros, the serpent that devours its own tail.
This mandala is often represented as a fiery lotus (the Golden Lotus), a shape
that allegorizes the essence of the sacred syllable, OM MANI PADME HUM. That
mantra (prayer) subsumes the Conflagration that destroyed Atlantis,
the a cataclysm of Fire and Water known as the Flood, as we explain in detail
So, the Sacred Geometry of Atlantis is indeed that of the
mandalas and yantras which we find all over the Far East, and particularly
in the East Indies. Moreover, this mandalic symbolism — expressed in
exactly the same way and using the very same technique of sandpainting and
of side-projection perspective — is also found in the Americas, for
instance among the Navajos and the Zuñi Indians, as we explain in the
link just given [LINK AGAIN]. Again, to imagine that these coincidences
are due to anything but diffusion utterly defies comonsense.
Even more exactly, the Hindu-Buddhic mandalas as well as their
Amerindian counterparts represent Atlantis as the true site of Paradise. This
representation includes Mt. Atlas as the Holy Mountain of Paradise. This mountain
is often explicitly figured as a volcano, the fiery source whose explosion
destroyed Paradise, which the Hindus call by names such as Atala and Patala,
closely reminiscent of the one of Atlantis.
Moreover, the Indian mandalas in question also represent the
Triple Wall of Atlantis (trimekhala). This Triple wall corresponds
to the ringing ocean (or River Oceanus) around the sacred city, also represented
by a triple circular moat. Again, the four gates (toranas) represent
the four maritime straits which allowed the accessing of Atlantis from the
four corners of the World. The fact that we encounter the legend of Atlantis
described so faithfully in Amerindian sandpaintings and in Far Eastern mandalas
that form the base of Hinduism and Buddhism proves the extreme importance
of the Atlantean myth in both America and the Far Orient.
The fact is that, on hindsight, this mandalic figuration of
Atlantis and its sacred geometry is found just about everywhere. As we just
saw, it is schematically figured in the Celtic Cross as well as in monuments
such as Stonehenge, which in fact represent the same thing. So does the so-called
Celtic Triple Wall, a schematic mandalic symbolism likewise found just about
everywhere in the ancient world. In Australia too, and in Melanesia, mandalas
essentially identical to those of the Hindu-Buddhists and the Amerindians
are also found in connection with symbolic representations of Paradise
and its Holy Mountain. So are, by the way, the Egyptian pyramids and the Mesopotamian
ziggurats and the pagodas and stupas of the Far East.
In a very schematic way, one could say that the stone circles
(cromlechs) and its aliases such as circular lakes or ponds, dolmens, etc.,
represent the yoni, and that the standing stones, menhirs, pyramids, obelisks
and so on represent the linga. These two symbols are the most sacred objects
in India, and roughly correspond to the two triangles of the Mogen David,
the two beams of the Cross, the Lunar Crescent and Pole Star, and so on. In
fact, the two objects both represent the Holy Mountain, first as a mountain
peak, then in the collapsed state, after the "castration" effected
by the giant explosion that turned the mountain into a gaping volcanic caldera,
that of the Krakatoa volcano, in Indonesia, the homeland of volcanoes.
An identical motif is also found in Egypt, where the pyramidal
complexes also represented the pyramid-shaped Holy Mountain. A famous blue
faience bowl found in Thebes and dated at the New Kingdom shows the pyramidal
Holy Mountain, in plan view, as an island surrounded all around by an encircling
canal. At the four corners, the Four Cardinal Directions, are the four Trees
of Life shown as giant lotus plants. The picture closely resembles the similar
mandalic designs of the Mayas and Aztecs, which often embody the four Trees
of Life. It also evokes the Hindu mandalas representing Mt. Meru, likewise
seen from above, with its four subsidiary peaks, each with its own Tree of
Life. It is extremely unlikely that such identical designs and sophisticate
paradisial symbolisms developed independently in all these distant, isolated
regions of the world. And their ancient presence on the two worlds shows that
they date from Atlantean times, as we just argued.
In more disguised form but symbolizing precisely the
same ideas and the same sacred geometry of Atlantis we also have similar
mandalic shapes representing the Celestial Jerusalem as the Center of the
World. The Holy Mountain is here represented by Mt. Calvary (= Mt. Atlas or
Meru) and the Cross (= Golden Lotus = Conflagration). Indeed, most capital
cities such as Washington DC, Belo Horizonte, Buenos Aires, Lhassa, Harappa,
Mecca, and so on, are built according to the Sacred Geometry of Atlantis,
the actual source of all such archetypal Paradises.
These cities all have, as their central feature, the obelisk
at the middle of a circular plaza, from which depart the four main avenues
along the Four Cardinal Directions. Anyone familiar with the inherent meaning
of Hindu-Buddhic mandalas representing Mt. Meru as the Holy Mountain of Paradise
will have no difficulty in realizing the Indian origin of this universal symbolism.
The very fact that it is both universal and extremely ancient proves, beyond
reasonable doubt, that its worldwide diffusion can only have been carried
out by the Atlanteans, in the dawn of times, before the cataclysmic end of
the Pleistocene Era. How else?
8) beyond the pillars of hercules
Since Atlantis was located in the Outer Ocean, it has to be
sought outside the Pillars of Hercules. The two European pillars were called
Calpe and Habila, in the Strait of Gibraltar. Actually, there were several
Pillars of Hercules in antiquity created by the cunning Phoenicians or by
the Greeks, in order to confuse the competitors seeking the secret route to
Paradise. This secret route was indeed the one allowing the profitable commerce
with the East Indies and its famous herbs and spices among which, we suspect,
were also included hallucinogenic drugs such as cannabis, opium, datura and
the holy mushroom.
Thus, we find Pillars of Hercules sometimes confused
with those of Atlas, the Pillar of Heaven not only in Gibraltar, but
also in Tartessos (Spain), Gadis (modern Cádiz, in Spain), Gadir (Morocco),
the Bosporus (Black Sea), the Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabia) and even as far as the
Indus Delta (India) and the Strait of Sunda (Indonesia). In reality, it was
the opening up of the true Pillars of Hercules in the Strait of Sunda that
created the legend of the Hero (Hercules-Gadeiros) opening the Strait of Gibraltar
as his most important deed, the rustling of Geryon's cattle, his tenth labor.
In reality this job was done by the giant explosion of the Krakatoa volcano,
which was formerly Mt. Atlas, and lay between Java and Sumatra, which it separated
by means of the Sunda Strait, its giant submarine caldera.
When the Greeks moved out from their primeval homeland in
the East Indies into their new one in the Mediterranean, they brought along
their myths, which they transplanted to the local geographical features. Hence,
they created a new pair of Pillars of Hercules (in Gibraltar), a new "Atlantic
Ocean", a new Garden of the Hesperides, a new set of Islands of the Blest,
a new Mt. Olympus, and so on. And they also transferred the legend of the
opening of the strait to Gibraltar, and the deed of Balarama (Bala, Baal)
to the one of Hercules, his Greek counterpart. In fact, names such as Bosporus
(Grk. bos-phoros), Oxford ("ox-ford"), Gadeira (gad-ira),
and so on, which mean "cattle-fording place", allude to Hercules'
crossing with the cattle he stole from Geryon.
However, as we just said, the archetypal Pillars of Hercules
really lay in Indonesia, the true site of Atlantis and, in consequence, of
Eden. There is where the whole story of humanity indeed started. But, whether
one accepts this discovery of ours or not, this matters very little, for Plato
is very specific on his disclosure that Atlantis in fact lay in the Outer
Ocean and "beyond the Pillars of Hercules".
Actually, the great philosopher uses the word hyper
which is a Greek adverb meaning "beyond", with a sense of "transposing",
"crossing", "passing beyond", "going further",
"yonder", "past", "over", etc.. So, the proposals
that place Atlantis inside the Mediterranean Basin, though attractive and
scientifically convincing, must be discarded as specious. Such is the case
of Thera (Santorini, near Crete), of the Schott-el-Djerid (Libya), of the
Bosporus (Black Sea), of the Kertch Strait (idem), of Troy (Hisarlik, in Turkey)
and so on, all of which assume the existence obviously phony replicas of the
Pillars of Hercules. Moreover, the words of Plato in fact mean something placed
directly in front of the Pillars of Hercules rather than far away, as is the
case of the Americas, or off the site as happens withtheCanary Islands or
the Norht Sea, or even the British Shelf.
The specifications of Plato further embody certain puns
so liked of the ancients when treating matters related to the secret of the
Mysteries which we now attempt to explain. To start with, the word
hyper discussed above also has the sense of "placed above, as
a substitute". This is probably what Plato had in mind when he wrote
that "the Atlanteans lived beyond the Pillars of Hercules" (hyper
ten Heraklei Nyssai).
We have precisely the same kind of pun in the Egyptian name
of the country of Hau-nebut, the mysterious people of the shady "Islands
of the Middle of the Great Green (Sea)". These islands, which have been
confused with Crete by many Egyptologists of merit, are indeed those of Indonesia,
the primordial Paradise of the Egyptians (Punt). The name of Hau-nebut derives
from a wordplay, in Sanskrit and Dravida, the primordial languages of the
place, and means something like "the Islands (or Marshes) beyond the
Pillars (of Hercules)". In other words, these distant isles are precisely
those of Atlantis, left behind when the great continent foundered long ago.
This nebuluous country is also the one the Greeks called Cimmeria, the Germans
called Nephelheim and the Hindus named Dumâdhi, all of which names mean
something as "hazy" or "covered by smoke".
This exegesis might be considered farfetched, were it not
for the fact that Plato makes another similar wordplay when he makes the priest
of Sais affirm that Atlantis lay "in front of the straits which are by
you called Pillars of Hercules". By "you", and not "by
himself", that is what the philosopher really means. What Plato is indeed
hinting at is that the Pillars of Hercules in question are truly those of
Indonesia, which he himslef would certainly call by that name. For, there
are no lands or islands, sunken or not, "before Gibraltar" except
the distant continent of North America or some puny islets which could never
have sited Atlantis. No one so far, in modern times, has dared to identify
America to Atlantis.
This fact is in contrast to the geography of Sunda Strait,
indeed the ancient gateway to Atlantis. Before it, an enormous continent,
now sunken, then lay as an enormous expanse just in front, precisely as Plato
states in his Timaeus (24e). What the great philosopher affirms of
Atlantis was perfectly true of Indonesia during the Pleistocene Ice Age:
"There was an island [or sunken continent = nesos]
beyond the Pillars of Hercules... larger than Libya [North Africa] and Asia
[Minor] put together. This island [of Atlantis] was the way to other islands
[Oceania]; and from these you might pass to the opposite continent [the Americas],
which encompasses the true Ocean".
Look at a good map of the world —
or at the one shown in Fig. 1 further below in this page — and you will
readily realize that Plato spoke truly, and that this region is the only one
in the world that fits his words adequately at the epoch in question, the
Pleistocene Ice Age. The "Pillars of Hercules" — the true,
original ones — are the ones flanking Sunda Strait. The "island"
or "continent" (nesos) just ahead of it is the now
sunken land of the Sunda Shelf, alias Atlantis. The passage to the other islands
that Plato mentions corresponds to what is now known as the Wallace
The Wallace Line is the effective maritime separation between
Southeast Asia on one side, and Australia and connected lands on the other.
During the Pleistocene Ice Age, this line formed a narrow, long strait which
in fact allowed the crossing of ships from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific
Ocean on the other side of the otherwise land-blocked region. And from there,
you in fact met the many islands of Melanesia and Polynesia which allowed
the safe crossing (with re-supplying, etc.) to the Americas, the "Outer
Continent" (Peirata Ges) beyond. The agreement with Plato's
text is so perfect and so unique that it is tempting to say that nowhere else
will you find another one like it.
Two more points deserve being commented here. One is the meaning
of the word nesos, usually undertood to mean "island",
and the other is the translation of the above quoted passage concerning the
size of Atlantis being "larger than Libya and Asia put together".
By "Asia", the ancient Greeks generally meant Asia Minor (Turkey
or Anatolia). And by "Libya"
they generally understood Africa, which they believed to end north of the
equator, as shown in the map of Strabo linked further aboved (item 1). Some
researchers who identify Atlantis with Crete propose that the above passage
be interpreted as meaning "between Libya and Asia Minor", which
would place Atlantis more or less in the region of Crete.
But this translation is impossible. What Plato writes: hê
de nêsos hama Libuês ên kai Asias meizôn literally means: "and
the island was bigger (meizôn) than Libya and Asia sumed (hama)".
Meizôn is the comparative of megas ("big"),
and is never a preposition, as is the case of "between". Moreover,
Plato uses hama,
which means "placedt together, added, juxtaposed". How can that
be reconciled with the idea of opposition implied by the extremes of something
placed in between? It is obvious that this attempt is purely speculative,
and is no more than an attempt to bend Plato's words to intend mean something
and say another.
The second issue is even more telltale. As we explain in the
next entry, the Greek word nesos ("island") also applied,
in antiquity, to coastal lowlands subjected to periodic or permanent flooding,
and to overseas regions or those isolated by water or by deserts, etc.. As
such, the word had precisely the same use as the Sanskrit dvipa and
the Egyptian yu, meaning the same thing. In particular, the word
dvipa applied to the sunken Paradises of Hindu tradition, the apparent
archetypes of the one which Plato is writing on. In fact, Plato affirms that
the story was translated from an unknown original tongue into Egyptian and
that the priests who told it to him interpreted the meaning of the names used
So, it is possible that this unknown tongue was actually Sanskrit,
and that the word translated as nesos by Solon was in fact dvipa,
meaning both "island" and "continent" or, more exactly,
"sunken land" or "peninsula". No matter what, the
Greek word nesos used by Plato also means "flooded land",
"sunken land", "peninsula" exactly as does the Skt. dvipa.
This usage is attested in the link just given and, for instance, in the name
of the Peloponnesus ("Island of Pelops"), a peninsula, rather than
really an island. The etymon of "sunken land" just mentioned is
attested in several Greek papyri some of which are referenced in the link
just provided. And it also means "alluvial land", like the one of
the Nile delta, as attested in Tab.
Plato, as we just said, was a rhetor, a hierophant,
a master at the use of words. As such, he often played at words, in order
to stray the inquisitive profanes. So, when he used the word nesos,
he was in fact speaking of two things, in a double entendre, that
is, a wordplay or pun. The profanes thought that the philosopher was speaking
of an island, in the usual way. The initiates, instead, understood that Plato
was really speaking of a promontory or land partly sunken under the seas,
with only an "skeleton" left behind. This "skeleton" was
the mountainous lands of Taprobane, which he calls by precisely this name.
Taprobane is the the Ultima Thule of the Roman traditions, the start of the
"otherworld' of which Pliny and others speak.
This true Taprobane should not be mistaken with Sri Lanka,
its replica to the south of India. The real Taprobane -- the partly sunken
land that the Dravidas called Kanya Kumari -- was in fact composed of the
Malay Peninsula and the islands of Sumatra and Java, their Indonesian extensions.
These lands were indeed the "islands in the middle of the sea" of
which the Bible and several such sacred traditions also speak. The true meaning
of this cryptical name can now be understood. The Malay Peninsula and the
islands of Java and Sumatra are really the divide between the Pacific and
the Indian Ocean. As such, they are placed "in the middle of the sea"
(or ocean) dividing it in two moieties, as can be seen in a map
of the region or in Fig. 1 below. These islands are also the "Atlantic
Islands" which the ancients identified with the ones of Atlantis and,
more obscurely, also with the "Islands of the Blest", the remains
of Paradise Lost. We argue that matter in more detail in our
page on The True History of Atlantis.
Since the region of Atlantis, interposed between the two oceans
effectively closed the passage to the Pacific Ocean, it was named the Ultima
Thule, a name that means something as "last divide" or "last
frontier" in Latin. As the map of Fig. 1 below clearly shows, the
situation now corresponds to precisely what Plato states: a narrow strait,
with the "island" of Atlantis just in front. This strait is the
Lombok Strait (Selat Lombok), between the islands of Bali and Lombok,
as can be seen in the map of the region just linked. This strait is flanked
by two volcanoes on the sides, which are the true "Pillars of Hercules"
of which Plato really speaks.
These two volcanoes and this strait were later confused with
the nearby Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra and its volcanoes, the Krakatoa
and the Toba volcanoes. But this only happened after the end of the last Pleistocene
Ice Age, when Sunda Strait opened due to the enormous rise in sea level that
then took place. By navigating along the narrow channel that corresponds
to the Wallace Line (see above), one was able to pass into the Celebes Sea,
and then into the South China Sea, exiting in the Pacific Ocean, as
can be seen in Fig. 1 below and, in more detail, in
our map here. Of course, the narrow passage was a closely guarded secret,
known to very few initiates such as Plato himself.
The two "Pillars of Hercules" -- or rather, those
of Atlas, the twin and counterpart of Hercules -- were originally indeed the
twin volcanoes of Bali and Lombok, so famous in the local traditions. These
volcanoes closely hug the Lombok Strait, the entrance to the narrow channel
formed by Wallace's Line. Bali's volcano is called Mt.
Agung, which the Balinese equate with the very "navel of the universe",
the Holy Mountain around which the entire universe revolves and which serves
as the link of earth with both heaven and hell. Mt. Agung is also deemed the
abode of the Supreme God (Shiva), who is no other than Atlas himself. Mt.
Agung is fully 3,142 meters high, and forms an impressive view together with
its twin, the volcano of Lombok.
Lombok's volcano is Mt.
Rinjani. It is now dormant, but may re-awake anytime soon, as volcanologists
now realize. In contrast to Mt. Agung, Mt. Rinjani is a giant caldera, as
can be seen in the NASA photo just linked. Despite this collapse, Mt. Rinjani
is still impressively high, reaching an altitude of 3,726 meters. There can
be little doubt, now that they have been identified, that these two majestic
volcanoes in fact correspond to the primordial Pillars of Hercules and Atlas.
The true pillars are placed in the middle of the earth, serving as the Pillars
of Heaven, which they stay up. This identification is further surported by
the fact that the two Pillars of Hercules, Calpe and Habila are, by Avienus,
equated one to a lofty pillar, the other one to giant cup or caldera,
precisely as is the case here. We argue this issue in detail elsewhere, and
the intersted reader is directed to this discussion of ours.
It is hard to imagine a better concordance of the local geography
of the region of Indonesia and Plato's detailed report on Atlantis. Consider
now the geographical situation illustrated in Fig 1 below, which is the one
which prevailed during the Ice Age, the times of Atlantis. The access to Atlantis'
interior was gained via the Lombok Strait (Selat Lombok) between Bali and
Lombok. One then followed the narrow, long channel corresponding to Wallace
Line. This strait was essentially the only open passage open to the Pacific,
as shown in Fig. 1. And Wallace's Line is formed by the boundary of the two
Continental Plates of the region, the Eurasian Plate and the Indian-Australian
Plate, as can be seen in the map
Just in front of the strait and the "Pillars of Hercules"
(or Atlas, rather) we had the "island of Atlantis", that is, its
sunken land, the Sunda Shelf. Following this channel, one could pass into
the Celebes Sea, and then into the South China Sea, to finally emerge in the
open Pacific Ocean. There we had the many islands of Melanesia and Polynesia,
with allowed the safe crossing to the Outer Continent beyond, the Americas
which Plato calls the Peirata Ges ("Environing Land").
The only issue still missing is the "impassable barrier of mud",
which effectively closed this passage after the Atlantean cataclysm, the one
which we identified, first of all, with the drastic end of the Pleistocene
Ice Age some 11,600 years ago, the precise date stipulated by Plato.
And this feature we discuss below, in the next section, where
it belongs. Before we do it, however, let us call the reader's attention to
yet important fact. If we are right in our interpretation of the word nesos
as being the equivalent of the Sanskrit dvipa, we must seek for a
sunken land, rather than an island or even a continent such as America which
oviously never sunk at all. Cuba, where some researchers are currently doing
some remarkable finds, seems to have partly sunk. But the depth, the size
and the possible dates rule out this place as a possible location of Atlantis.
Likewise ruled out are Crete and Santorini, and even Hisarlik
(Troy) itself, where the same difficulties are met, with the aggravation of
not being placed "beyond (and before) the Pillars of Hercules" in
any believable way. Finally, placements such as the Canary Islands, the British
Shelf or the North Sea locations can hardly be said to be located "in
front of the Pillars of Hercules", no matter how hard you argue the fact.
And the reader should keep in mind the fact that no amount of arguing, however
well it is done, will ever change reality and the evidence of facts. So, one
should carefully take care (buyer, beware!) against those guys who attempt
to bend facts in order to make them fit their petty theories, much as
Procustus did with people, in order to make them fit his iron bed. As the
Bible says, "test out all things, keep the good ones".
9) innavigable seas and sargasso sea
Another subject of extreme importance in the texts of Plato
on Atlantis is the matter of the "innavigable seas". The philosopher
refers to these innavigable seas twice, one in the Critias
(108e) and the other in the Timaeus
In the Timaeus, Plato mentions that when Atlantis sunk underseas, "the
sea in the region became impassable and impenetrable because of the shoals
of mud in it, caused by the subsidence of the island [of Atlantis]".
In the Critias Plato repeats the same story of the
"impassable barrier of mud", again adding the detail that the island
that sunk was indeed "greater than Libya and Asia put together".
The Greeks had no name for "continent" in the modern sense. So,
they used the word "island" for it, in the sense of an extension
of land "isolated" by the seas. This usage has caused an enduring
difficulty for Atlantologists unfamiliar with this fact. Such is the reason
why they believe that Atlantis was an island rather than a continent or a
large piece of land of continental size isolated by the seas.
In fact, Plato himself specifically uses, in the Critias
(25a), the term nesos ("island") in contrast to the "true
continent" (peirata ges) to describe what is obviously America,
implying that the other continents are mere "islands". In
antiquity, the term "island" applied to any region isolated by the
sea or by rivers and deserts, for instance, Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, etc..
And such was particularly the case of coastal lowlands subject to submersion,
as we argued in the previous section.
But let us return to the matter of the "innavigable seas".
The Atlantic Ocean particularly in the region outside the Strait of
Gibraltar is actually very deep and very fit for navigation. It apparently
never posed a barrier for navigation and never presented shoals of sand or
mud either natural or as the result of the sinking of any islands or continents
Hence, the oceanographers and other such specialist put the
words of Plato to rest, and started looking for Atlantis elsewhere. In despair,
some appealed to the Sargasso Sea, even today a favorite theme of Atlantologists
unaware of the recent advances of Oceanography and of Comparative Mythology.
Indeed, the Sargasso Sea got its name due to a mistake of Christopher Columbus.
Columbus believed to the day of his death that he was heading
to the fabulous Indies.
The Indies are the true site of the Eldorado and of Paradise,
as any seasoned mariner well knows. Hence, when the great explorer saw the
sargassos and flotsam of these seas, he immediately thought he had reached
the Indies and its fabled Sargasso Sea which are indeed shallow and treacherous,
just as Plato claimed. Columbus, thus, wrongly baptized the seas he discovered
with the hopeful but unfortunate name that persists even today. In reality
the true Sargasso Sea is the one the Hindus call Nalanala, meaning
the same in Sanskrit. The Indian "Sea of Sargassos" is indeed the
South China Sea, though the South Indian Ocean is sometimes so named, as well.
This sea is the one of the Indonesian region, which is no
other than the one of sunken Atlantis. These seas are there indeed shallow
and full of reeds, sargassos, kelp, sandbars and coral reefs, which render
their navigation next to impossible, except to the extremely skilled native
pilots. And the name of "Sargasso Sea" — is specifically applied
to the south Indian Ocean in the Map
of Ptolemy of the Ulm Edition. The name is naturally given in Latin as
Mare Prasodum, where prasodum is the genitive plural of
prason ("sargasso, kelp").
What is more, the Indonesian Seas are prone to a very peculiar
phenomenon that is indeed linked with the Atlantean cataclysm, just in the
manner disclosed by Plato. When the Krakatoa volcano erupted explosively,
back in 1883, it caused one of the worst catastrophes ever recorded by men.
The explosion originated an immense tidal wave that killed some 40,000 people
instantly by drowning, or as the result of exposure. Several more persons
died of famine, later on, and were not computed. But the most curious feature
of its explosion was the liberation of immense floating banks of pumice stone.
These endured for months, impeding navigation in the region and causing the
death of a large number of fishes and other marine organisms.
We can now understand the true meaning of Plato's words.
The "mud" in question is what Plato calls pelos, a Greek
word meaning "slime", "clay", "mud", "muck",
"silt", "ooze", "sediment". In other words,
this "mud" is the pumice stone and the fly ash erupted by the giant
volcanic explosion possibly one thousand times larger than the Krakatoa
eruption of 1883. This mass covered the local seas with sediments and floating
banks of volcanic ejecta. This impeded navigation for perhaps centuries on
end. And still does, in a large way. Even today, these seas are, to a large
extent, "innavigable" in a rather literal sense, as the result of
vast banks of silt and sandbars to a large extent deposited by volcanic cataclysms
dated at the end of the Pleistocene.
10) sunken continent
One of the most stringent clues on Plato's Atlantis is
that of a sunken continent "greater than Libya [North Africa] and Asia
[Minor] put together". In other words, Plato is speaking of something
like 5 to 10 million square kilometers, about the size of Brazil or the USA.
Now that is an enormous piece of real-estate, the size of a continent, one
that cannot be easily hidden away anywhere.
Where can this continental-sized region be hiding even today?
Certainly not in the Atlantic Ocean, that has been scrutinized (for military
purposes) down to the decametric scale by both the American and the Russian
oceanographic ships. The same is true of the Pacific and the Indian Oceans
which have also been thoroughly scanned. Hence, an Atlantic Atlantis is an
illusion that is to be found nowhere. So, if Atlantis truly exists, it must
be sought elsewhere than in the Atlantic Ocean.
It is an extremely interesting fact
that Atlantologists and apparently the oceanographers as well
have been minutely searching the world's ocean so thoroughly that they
forgot to seek in the exact spot where Atlantis actually lies: the South China
Sea. Strictly speaking, the South China Sea that of Indonesia, to be
sure lies between the Pacific and the Indian Oceans. But it belongs
to neither, and actually forms their divide.
This is the reason why Indonesia was called Ultima
Thule (that is, "Ultimate Divide") by the ancients. Thule was
considered "the Divide of the World" in antiquity, as it separated
the Old from the New World.
As the world is spherical, and closes upon itself,
its extremes touch each other. So, the two extremes of the world (Orient and
Occident) are indeed coterminous, and are also at the center, the Center of
the World. This is how the paradox of Thule and the Pillars of Hercules being
both the ultimate extremity of the world and, simultaneously, its Center or
Navel (Omphalos) should be ultimately understood. It is also thus
that we must understand the paradox of Paradise lying both at the Extreme
Occident and the Extreme Orient. For, beyond the Far Orient (the farthest
east) lies the Far Occident (the farthest west), the New World. The whole
thing is rather obvious, if only a posteriori, when we pause to think it over.
Columbus reasoned in precisely this way when he attempted to reach the Far
East via the west, by sailing in the Atlantic Ocean.
The South China averages only about 50-60 meters in depth.
It is, hence, extremely shallow and dangerously filled with sandbars and coral
reefs that render navigation there extremely perilous, just as Plato affirmed
(see item 9 above). Thus, it is possible to understand precisely
what happened according to Plato. Geology has recently afforded this type
of evidence as well.
During the Pleistocene Ice Age or, more exactly, during
the last Glacial Period so much water was retained in the continental
glaciers that sea level was lower by some 100-150 meters. Hence, the shallow
bottom of the South China Sea was completely exposed, forming a vast expanse
of continental dimensions.
It was this vast expanse that the Greeks called Elysian Fields
and the Egyptians named Sekhet Aaru (or "Field of Reeds"). This
marshy country is the one which later became the primordial Sargasso Sea of
the Indonesian region (9).
So, while it is true that "continents cannot sink",
it is also true that sea level can rise and flood entire continents, as it
did in the South China Sea. It is there that we must seek Atlantis and Eden,
as well as the Elysian Fields and the Isles of the Blest. It was also there
that once lay the felicitous Paradise, the very cradle of Mankind and of Civilization.
Atlantis has not been found before because it has been sought in the wrong
side of the world, perhaps as the result of ethnocentric biases and white
When we look at a map of the region during the Ice Age (Fig.
1) we can see that, indeed, the region formed a vast expanse of continental
size, precisely as Plato and others postulated, and just as we argued above.
Plato speaks of a sudden cataclysm, taking place "in a single day and
a night of sorrow". In contrast, geologists unanimously affirm that the
rise in sea level was slow and gradual, and that the process lasted perhaps
a millennium, while the glaciers slowly melted away, their meltwaters gradually
filling the seas.
Can these two points of view, so opposite in scope be factually
reconciled? Actually both are somewhat right, once they are properly understood.
What indeed happened was that the giant explosive eruption of the Krakatoa
volcano caused a colossal tsunami improperly called "tidal wave"
which swept over Atlantis' lowlands and rivers valleys, killing
and destroying all things in its wake.
And this colossal explosion also caused the end of the Pleistocene
Ice Age. this event occurred because the giant explosion covered the world's
glaciers with a fine layer of soot. This soot increased their absorption of
the sun's heat, causing their consequent melting. The meltwaters of the
continental glaciers flowed to the seas, rising their level. The extra weight
of that water created huge stresses between the overloaded seafloors and the
alleviated continental lands. These stresses, in turn, led to further paroxysms
of volcanism and earthquakes of a hitherto unprecedented scale.
So, the process of termination of the Pleistocene Ice Age
was perhaps more or less uniform along an entire millennium. But it was punctuated
from the start by a series of cataclysms caused by the volcanisms, the seaquakes
and the earthquakes caused by the very process in action.
In other words the end of the Pleistocene was triggered by
the very cataclysm that destroyed Atlantis. This triggering resulted in a
further castigation of the doomed region. Already almost fully destroyed by
the conflagration and the giant tsunami that we call the Flood, Atlantis saw
its vast territory gradually disappear under the seas that kept rising gradually,
while a series of volcanic eruptions and giant seaquakes marked the cadence
of a further series of violent cataclysms.
All this violence started exactly at the date given by Plato,
that of 11,600 BP. This date is the actual one of the end of the Pleistocene
according to the geologic record. The terrible event also caused the extensive
mass extinctions that attended the transition from the Pleistocene into the
present geological era, the Holocene. Interestingly enough, recent studies
of the geological record have shown that the end of the Pleistocene Ice Age
(and that of the other geological eras as well) was attended by a paroxysmic
increase of volcanic and seismic activity of unprecedented proportions.
The reason for this is easy to understand. As the glaciers
melted away, their meltwaters flowed into the ocean, causing sea level to
rise by 100-150 meters. The alleviated continental plates rose isostatically
(isostatic rebound), while the overburdened seafloors, subjected to the tremendous
pressure of the extra water, tended to sink even further. This strain caused
tremendous stresses in the crust of the earth, which cracked and quaked at
the weak spots, engendering the paroxysm in question. The process is self-sustaining,
once started, due to positive feedback, for the increased volcanism and seismic
activity further accelerates glacier melting, as described above.
11) megalithic constructions
We consider megalithic constructions particularly the
ones made of hewn stones such as those of Egypt and Peru to be the
very "signature" of the Atlanteans. The reason is easy to see. In
order to work hard stones such as granite and basalt, nothing short of steel
or, at the very minimum, bronze, will ever do. Stone even as hard as
dolerite and granite soon chip and crack, becoming unusable.
Archaeologists generally claim that the Egyptians and the
Peruvian Indians who built the colossal structures we can observe even today
in England (Stonehenge), in Giza (the Great Pyramid) and in Peru and Bolivia
(Tiahuanaco) did it with tools fashioned from copper or from stones such as
dolerite. This fact shows that they actually never attempted to do it in reality
or even to theoretically demonstrate how this can be done in practice. The
reason for that is simple to see, as the feat is completely impossible in
The true secret of megalithic construction is the possession
of steel and bronze tools and of the metallurgical techniques to produce them.
This technology existed in the Far East several millennia before the recognized
date of their introduction in the West. It is clear that this technique came
from elsewhere, and was indeed practiced by foreigners or invaders that kept
such secrets for themselves.
Such was precisely the case in both Egypt and Peru, the two
greatest early exponents of megalithic technology outside the Far East. Incan
and Egyptian traditions both tell how personages associated with the construction
of megaliths and pyramids came from the distant Orient, bringing along their
steel weapons. These they later crafted into the tools they used in order
to erect their magnificent megalithic constructions. In Egypt, a steel tool
was found inside the Great Pyramid by Col. Vyse, who swore in writing that
it could in no case be intrusive and, hence, of later date. But the Great
Pyramid was built in 2,600 BC, almost 2 millennia before iron was officially
introduced in Egypt. Furthermore, the builders (Free-Masons?) to whom such
megalithic constructions are ascribed personages such as Khufu, Imhotep
and Thoth are unanimously said to have come from the Orient, from the
site of Paradise (Punt). Punt (Indonesia)is precisely the site of the Paradise
we believe to be the same as Atlantis.
The same thing also happened in Peru. There the Incas attributed
the construction of Tiahuanaco's magnificent pyramids and precision megalithic
structures to the Chimus (or Chams), whom they described as white, blond,
blue-eyed giants. This is the standard phenotype of the Atlanteans everywhere.
These Indians also claim that, when these invaders came from beyond the Ocean
(Pacific), they brought along the iron and the bronze with which they fashioned
their tools and weapons. Even the name the Peruvians used for steel (quillay)
is of Dravidian derivation, and clearly came from the Far Orient.
When we turn to places such as Greece (legends on the construction
of Troy); to England (Stonehenge), France (Carnac) and the Far East itself
(Angkor, Java, South India) we always find the legends claiming that these
monuments were built by blond giants and dark dwarfs working jointly and using
magical means in order to erect their megaliths.
Are these, perhaps, reflections of Atlantis and its two races
of giants (Nagas) and dwarfs (Kinnaras, or what? How else can
we reasonably explain otherwise the mystery of the construction of the spectacular
monuments such as the Great Pyramid, Zozer's pyramidal complex, the megaliths
of Tiahuanaco or even the rougher constructions of France (Carnac) and England
(Stonehenge)? These were all constructed of gigantic hard-stones shaped to
exacting tolerances by means of a technique that we are barely able to reproduce
today. Moreover, how but through Atlantis can we explain the fact that all
such monuments were built to serve a common purpose as a replica of Atlantis?
Besides, why are they all ascribed to semi-divine personages of Atlantean
origin who used superior, seemingly magical techniques for the purpose?
12) horses and war chariots
Plato relates in detail how Atlantis had an immense army for
the time, totaling about 1.2 million armed men. This vast army had a sum of
10,000 chariots, something portentous for the epoch. Now, war chariots require
horses, which is to say that the horse was first domesticated in Atlantis
some 12 thousand years ago or even more. This fact apparently rules out the
Americas from our list, as they did not posses the animal except under non-conformal
sizes and dates.
The same conclusion also applies to Europe and the Near East.
There, the horse was only introduced far later by way of Egypt and the Hyksos,
at about 1,670 AC or so. All in all, it seems that if Plato's disclosures
on the intensive use of domesticated horses in Atlantis is indeed true, only
an Oriental location for the Lost Continent is indeed consonant with actual
The origin and the domestication of the horse is wrapped in
mystery, as is usually the case with all things Atlantean. The magnificent
animal apparently arose in Asia at about 38 million years ago. From there
it later spread to the Americas, and became extinct there afterwards, but
not before returning to Eurasia. Experts believe that the horse was domesticated
in Central Asia at about the third millennium BC. From there, via Egypt and
the Hyksos, the horse's use spread to Europe and the Near East and, perhaps,
from this, back to the Far Orient, where its use had been utterly lost and
Experts also generally agree that the domestic horse does
not derive from American stocks but, instead from Asian ones. Hence, the very
archaeology of the horse points to Asia as the land of origin of the domesticated
horse. This suggests a connection between Atlantis and the Orient if Plato
is right in his assertion that the domestic horse originated in Atlantis far
earlier than the experts would have it.
Plato also tells how the royal capital city of Atlantis had
extensive hippodromes for horse racing. Plato is probably alluding to chariot
racing, though it is not impossible that there were also mounted contests.
The large width of the racing course (200 meters) suggests chariot contests,
a sport highly cherished in antiquity.
The Horse Sacrifice of the Hindus (Ashvamedha) is indeed
a ritual enactment of the death of Paradise (Atlantis). The horse is there
commemorated as the animal that represents the Cosmos (Paradise). So, this
strange Vedic ritual again establishes a link with Atlantis as the homeland
of the domesticated horse, one of the finest of all conquests of man. The
legend of the Trojan Horse also brings to mind a connection between Atlantis
and horses, for the true Troy is no other than Atlantis.
As the horse and combat chariots did not exist in the Near
East before their introduction by the Hyksos, we can be sure that Schliemann's
Troy is not the real one, as archaeologists presently believe. The war chariots
described in detail by Plato are of the Hindu type rather than of the one
used throughout the ancient Near East.
The war chariots of Atlantis, like the ones of India, had
two charioteers and a pair of draft horses. One of the riders drove, while
the other charioteer shot arrows at the enemies with the help of his bow.
The celebrated passage of the Bhagavad Gita on Krishna and Arjuna as
the charioteers of victory describes in detail the classical battles fought
during the Bronze Age and, in all probability, in Atlantis as well.
We cannot end this section without repeating that, from all
the gifts man has inherited from Atlantis, the domesticated horse was certainly
one of the noblest of all. Though classically used in combats and disputes
of all sorts, the horse also served as a means of transportation, of drafting
loads and implements and, above all, for riding, along all the millennia that
preceded the epoch-making invention of the automobile.
When one admires horses on the loose, one is usually impressed
with the great speed and the gracefulness of the superb animal. But one is
also struck with the wide extensions that these magnificent creatures require
both for roaming and for feeding. One is also led to dream of paradisial grassy
plains of enormous extension, abounding in fat grass and in water sources
flashing under the warm sunlight of the tropical regions.
What other plains are as fit as the Elysian Plains for the
birthplace of the horse and for that of the wise ancestors who first dreamed
of turning the horse in an everyday companion and friend? The very fact that
the ancestor of the domesticated horse cannot be traced with security suggests
a lost site of origin like the one of Atlantis. Atlantis, we recall, was the
very site of the Elysian Plains, the immense grassy pampas where the horse
is most likely to have originated.
13) elephants in atlantis
Plato is very specific on the presence of elephants in Atlantis.
In his Critias, the philosopher writes:
"There were a great number of elephants in the
island, for there was ample provision of food for all sorts of animals...
including for the animal which is the largest and the most voracious of all."
The question of elephants is very important, for it sheds
a lot of light on the issue of Atlantis. The date given by Plato for the end
of Atlantis that of 11,600 BP is a divisor of waters. It corresponds
precisely with that of the drastic end of the Pleistocene. This is the epoch
when the mammoth and the mastodon became extinct throughout the world, along
with a myriad species of other plants and animals. Plato would certainly call
these two elephantoids by the name of "elephant", an animal they
closely resemble in both shape and size.
So, if we consider the date given by Plato to be real, we
could place Atlantis everywhere these great mammals existed. In contrast,
if we accept later dates, as do the proponents of an American or a Theran
Atlantis, we must disregard the mammoth and the mastodon, for they were already
extinct. To be sure, there are some later RC dates for the mammoth in North
America, well after the end of the Pleistocene. But these should be considered
pending confirmation, as they seem to be spurious, perhaps as the result of
contamination by extraneous material.
In other words, elephants proper are only found in Africa
and in South Asia. So, the exigency of their presence by Plato excludes the
Americas and the Mediterranean Basin, with the exception of North African
countries. The elephant existed in North Africa, and was utilized by Hannibal
of Carthage, in his war against Rome. Some ancient traditions report the presence
of wild elephants in Syria, where it was ritually hunted by kings and pharaohs.
But these traditions probably refer to the pristine "Syria", the
Island of the Sun (Surya, in Sanskrit), which is no other than Atlantis itself.
However, the unlikely presence of the elephant in ancient Palestine would
hardly invalidate any of our conclusions, for this semi-desertic region of
the globe can hardly have been the actual site of luscious, tropical Atlantis.
The wonderful creature also exists in the African savannas
in relatively great numbers. But it is in the Indies that is, in India,
Indonesia and the Malay Peninsula that the elephant indeed thrives.
There, the elephant has been domesticated as a beast both of burden and warfare
use since remotest antiquity, as attested in the steatite seals of the Indus
The mammoth and the mastodon in contrast to the elephant
were well adapted to cold weather, and ranged farther north, into the
icy regions of Pleistocenic North America, Europe, and North Asia. So, if
we include these creatures under the "elephants" mentioned by Plato,
we must also include the regions just mentioned as possible sites for Atlantis.
But we should keep in mind that this inclusion automatically requires that
the date for Atlantis in these locations must be the one given by Plato for
its demise, for these animals became extinct after the end of the Pleistocene
Ice Age, some 11,600 years ago, the very date of Atlantis' foundering.
Turning to other points. As a matter of fact, the elephant
was the totemic deity of the Nagas (or Aryans) of India. The Nagas (or Titans)
were the people so closely connected with Atlantis and Atlantean legends there
and elsewhere. Indeed, the word naga means both "elephant"
and "serpent" (or "dragon") in Sanskrit. Such "dragons"
or "elephants" are universally held to be the same as the Atlantean
Sons of God, the engenderers of royal dynasties everywhere. Such was the case,
for instance, of Alexander, the Great, of Buddha (the Elephant = a Naga),
and of Arthur Pendragon ("Son of the Dragon").
Interestingly enough, the Mayas of Mexico worshipped the elephant
as a totemic deity, and endlessly reproduced the animal's features in
their temples and palaces. Mayan temples are often decorated with elephantine
trunks in the so-called "elephant trunk" decorations. These are
said to reproduce the elephant-faced god called Chaac. Chaac seems to be the
exact counterpart of his Hindu alias, Ganesha, likewise elephant-headed. No
one with an open mind can ever deny that the Mayan god Chaac locally
called Narigón ("Big Nose") is anything other
than an elephant god of the type the Hindus call Naga (a Sanskrit word
meaning both "Elephant and "Serpent" or "Dragon").
The Nagas represent the anguipedal Titans and, in particular,
the serpent (or elephant = Naga) god Shesha. Shesha is the true archetype
of Atlas as the Pillar of the World. Similar elephantine temple decoration
abound even today in the Indies. There the elephant (or serpent) god is, just
as in Mayan America, endlessly reproduced in the form of pillars supporting
the temples' roofings which represents the skies. In Incan Peru we also
had the same thing. There too, the Serpent Amaru the exact counterpart
of Shesha was held to support the world. Its dual was the Inti Bird,
a sort of kite or falcon, also the archenemy of serpents. Both animals figured
in the royal coat-of-arms, just as they did in Mexico.
The elephant or serpent gods of the Incas, the Mayas and the
Hindus have a dual in the eagle god, called Garuda or Nagari ("Enemy
of the Nagas") in the Indies. In Mexico, the duel of the Eagle and the
Serpent has been adopted as the national emblem of Mexico, as it was central
to Mayan religion. The motif is equally famous in the Indies, where Garuda
is the Eagle, and the Nagas are the Serpents or Dragons.
Hence, either the Mayas got their notion of elephant gods
from India, or we have to root their formidable civilization in antediluvian,
Pleistocenic times. Both perspectives are equally fascinating. They both spell
Atlantis, for Pleistocenic civilizations or intimate trans-Pacific contacts
between the Far East and the Americas both collide front on with "official"
views of human prehistory.
Whereas the elephant or the extinct mammoths and mastodons
may have existed in a now sunken Atlantic island, there is no confirmatory
evidence for this, and the matter is pending. Scandinavia and Celtiberia present
certain evidence of the presence of the mammoths, but none whatsoever of its
domestication or of any great Pleistocenic civilization that might be equated
with Atlantis. No traces of elephants have ever been found on Thera or Crete,
except perhaps for certain imported ivory objects. The same holds for Antarctica.
According to the archaeological issues discussed above we marked our Checklist
Plato, the Indies, North Africa, Libya and African Northwest.
Sunken Atlantic Island, Scandinavia (and North Sea), Celtiberia.
Thera (Crete) and Antarctica, where no traces of elephants or mammoths have
ever been discovered.
14) evidences of cataclysm (flood)
Few facts are as well recorded in geology as the Universal
Flood. It is sufficient to read Buffon, Cuvier, Buckland, and other such pre-Darwinian
Catastrophists to verify how ample the evidence of a universal cataclysm is
everywhere. The modern Catastrophists the geologists that have the
guts to disagree with the official Uniformitarian doctrines of Darwin and
Lyell have even more compelling evidence on this universal cataclysm.
Indeed the end of the Pleistocene 11,600 years ago was attended by terrible
mass extinctions and cataclysms the world over.
The date is precisely that given by Plato. To believe that
this coincidence is purely random borders the irrational. Some 70% of all
species of great mammals and a whole series of lesser ones got extinct then.
Even the Neanderthals and the Cro-Magnons seem to have perished in that cataclysm,
as they became extinct at or about that terrible date.
But, it is in North America that the evidence of an immense
Flood cataclysm is the most evident. Many geologists have recognized that
geological features such as the scablands of the Northwestern United States,
that the drumlins of the northwestern plains of Canada and that the whales
of the region of the Great Lakes, in the very heart of the North American
continent, are the result of a gigantic flood of continental scale.
Some geologists, unfamiliar with the details of the problem,
ascribe this continental flooding to a gigantic lake formed by the meltwaters
of the Pleistocenic glaciers when they receded at the end of that geological
age. But experts such as Dr. Warren Hunt and others have shown the practical
impossibility that the giant amounts of glacier meltwaters could have been
dammed by ice dikes, for this material lacks both the strength and the adhesivity
to withhold so much water.
The only possible explanation that makes sense is that of
a sudden maritime invasion caused by a giant tsunami of global proportions,
as some geologists are now starting to realize. Everything points to the fact
that this giant wave came in from the Pacific Ocean via the north, across
the Arctic Ocean. It passed over Alaska and northwestern Siberia where it
left the evidence of the frozen mammoths and the immense quantities of "muck"
formed by diluvial debris such as whales, marine organisms, dead fishes, splintered
trees and many other such records. Then, it created both in its wake
and in the subsequent gradual withdrawal of its waters the drumlins
and the scablands we presently observe in that vast region of the world.
As concerns the legends of the Universal Flood. The memories
of the Flood are the actual imprint left by the cataclysmic end of the Ice
Age on the minds of men. There are few things so well attested in myths and
traditions as the cataclysm of the Flood and the destruction of Paradise it
caused in the dawn of times. Its tradition is as universal as is the geological
evidence for itself. Of course, the actual accounts differ from place to place
for, evidently, the actual experiences and visions of the cataclysm also changed
from place to place.
Some of these relations tell of maritime invasions by the
giant tsunami along the Pacific Coasts, rains and tempests further away, sky
darkening everywhere. They also speak of earthquakes and volcanic conflagrations
near the epicenter of the cataclysm, in Indonesia and Southeast Asia, and
An objective analysis of all these many descriptions of the
Flood and the destruction of Paradise by the agency of Fire and Water reveals
that the cataclysm in question can only have been the drastic ending of the
Pleistocene Ice Age. Again, an unbiased analysis discloses the fact that this
cataclysm was caused by a huge volcanic explosion that triggered a sort of
The event in question took place precisely at the date stated
by Plato for the demise of Atlantis, that of 11,600 BP. To believe that these
are sheer coincidences or, contrariwise, that the Flood was a petty local
cataclysm wildly exaggerated by the ancient "primitives" is a view
that cannot be held anymore except by the hardiest of diehards. The reality
of Catastrophism in Geology has now been established beyond reasonable doubt
by all sorts of factual evidence. So, the tenets of Uniformitarianism of Darwin
and Lyell cannot reasonably be adhered to any longer by any sensible person
on a par with the modern developments of Geology and Evolutionism.
15) transoceanic commerce
Plato affirms that one of the main features of Atlantis was
the nature and intensity of its naval commerce with even the most distant
nations of the world. The capital of the Atlantean empire was crossed by maritime
canals which allowed the ingress of the largest ships and allowed their docking
in its port facilities. In the Critias (114 d) Plato asserts:
"Because of the greatness of their empire, many
things were brought to them [the Atlanteans] from foreign countries, though
their land itself provided most of what was required for them for the uses
And Plato adds further below (Critias117c) that:
"The canals and the largest harbors [of the capital
city] were full of ships and merchants corning from all parts of the world
who, from their large numbers, kept a multitudinous rumor of human voices
and a din and clatter of all sorts both night and day."
Many authorities have noted the close resemblance of Plato's
Atlantis and Homer's Phaeacia, the distant golden realm visited by Odysseus
(Ulysses) in his wanderings in the Outer Ocean. Homer's Phaeacia (or Scheria,
its other name) indubitably lay in the Indian Ocean, which is referred to
by Homer as "the winy red ocean". This and other such epithets applied
exclusively to the Indian Ocean, which was called Erythraean ("Red One")
by the Greeks. This people considered the Erythraean as the eastern extension
of the Atlantic Ocean, and deemed it the veritable Ocean of the Atlanteans,
as we argue elsewhere.
The description of Phaeacia by Homer (Od. VII: 80)
with its lofty walls, spacious harbors, seaworthy ships and golden palaces
closely parallels the ones of Atlantis as described by Plato. Homer mentions
how the hero, spellbound by the magnificence of the royal palace, lingered
for a long time before it, not daring to enter its golden threshold.
In Homer's own words, "the splendor of the palace
was like that of the sun and the moon". Homer also affirms that the Phaeacians
"are a sea-faring nation, and sail all seas by the grace of Poseidon,
in ships fleet like thought or as a bird in the air".
Actually, the very name of Scheria said to derive from
the Phoenician word schera, meaning "market-place".
is telltale. It shows that Homer's fabulous golden realm was, like its
Atlantean counterpart, the emporium of a vast network of international naval
The name of Scheria can also be approached to the Greek word
schedia meaning "ships" or, rather, "fleet ships",
like the ones of Atlantis. Indeed, Homer likens Phaeacia to a huge ship which
was turned into stone and sunken by Poseidon, as a punishment for their disobedience
in helping Ulysses. Coincidentally enough, Poseidon, the great god of the
Phaeacians, is also the founder and supreme god of the Atlanteans, according
Ship-like Phaeacia closely evokes the primordial Tyre of Ezekiel
(ch. 26-28) which was likened to a ship by the prophet. Ezekiel's "Tyre"
later became "a place to spread fishing nets upon" after it was
turned into stone and sunk underseas. Ezekiel describes this primordial Tyre
as a "renowned city, inhabited by a seafaring nation of merchants, strong
in the middle of the seas". The great prophet also places this famous
city among the other "islands of the Outer Ocean" rather than in
When we pause to think it over, we see that this primordial
"Tyre" is indubitably the same as Homer's Phaeacia and as Plato's
Atlantis. It was the model of the other Tyre in Lebanon, founded by the Phoenicians
at about 1,500BC, after they removed from their primordial homeland beyond
the ocean (Indian). Ezekiel tells how Tyre and the other islands "trembled
in day of thy departure... in the midst of the waters".
Ezekiel's "Tyre" is also likened to "Eden,
the Garden of the Lord". It is sited, by the prophet, "in the middle
of the seas" among the other islands of the Outer Ocean, as we said above.
Ezekiel's "Tyre" was, like Plato's Atlantis, "full
of a multitude of merchants" who traded in all sorts of goods such as
metals, gemstones, precious stuff and spices in their "ships of Tarshish".
Tarshish was, as Ezekiel and others affirm, the supplier of metals such as
silver, gold, iron, tin, copper and bronze to the ancient nations of the Bronze
There can little doubt that Tarshish and, hence, the other
isles of the ocean such as Ezekiel's "Tyre", lay in the Indian
Ocean. In reality, the Phoenician sailors of King Solomon and of Hiram of
Tyre reached these overseas region from the port of Ezion-Geber, in the Red
Sea. Though the mysterious Tarshish the supplier of mineral ores and
gemstones has been often confused with the Spanish Tartessos, the fact
is that the Spanish Tartessos was, like the Lebanese Tyre, merely a replica
of their pristine archetypes in the islands of Indonesia.
The pristine commerce with the Indies was perhaps the best
kept secret of the ancients. The naval route to this remote supplier of metals,
spices and other precious stuff such as perfumes, incenses, drugs of all sorts,
dyes, ivory, amber, tissues, paper, etc.was carefully concealed from the possible
competitors This commerce dates back from the remotest antiquity, and is attested
not only in the detailed annals of the Egyptians, the Chinese and the Mesopotamians.
It is also recorded in the myths and traditions of the Bible (as in Ezekiel
and in Revelation), of the Greeks (the Odyssey, the Argonautica,
etc.) and, indeed, of most nations of antiquity.
The "isles of the sea" of Ezekiel are no other than
the "Atlantic Islands" that were invariably reproduced in the Medieval
maps of the world as "newly discovered" (insulae de novo repertae).
These mysterious islands were indeed those of Indonesia, the other "India"
from which the spices and the metals were imported in antiquity.
The naval route to these distant islands were ardently sought
out by all mariners down to the times of the great navigators such as Columbus,
Vasco da Gama, Magellan and Cabral. They were the islands of the East Indies
so vainly sought by all mariners down to the times of these discoverers, who
finally cleared the riddle of their true location and whereabouts.
The ancient sagas of navigator heroes such as Ulysses, the
Argonauts, Gilgamesh, and the Shipwrecked Egyptian Sailor, or the peripluses
of pseudo-historical sailors such as Hanno, Himilco, Pytheas of Marseilles
and Scylax of Caryanda, are no more than coded verbal maps of the route to
the fabulous Indies, as we argue in detail elsewhere.
In other words, there was only one region in antiquity that
corresponded to Plato's description of the fabulously rich Atlantis as
a nation of worldwide navigators and suppliers of all kinds of precious merchandise.
That nation was India and, more exactly, the two Indies, India and Indonesia.
Down to modern times, as throughout all antiquity, the Indies were the source
of precious merchandises such as the ones mentioned above. These merchandises
were all Indian exclusivities in antiquity. So, the fact that they are linked
to Atlantis by Plato, and to Ophir (or Tarshish or Eden or "Tyre")
in the Bible, is a stringent hint of the fundamental identity of all these
locations with the fabulous East Indies.
Only later were alternative sources of supply of the crucial
tin (the British Cassiterides), of amber (the Baltic) and of "spices"
(the Americas) discovered to replace the fabulous Indies, the true successors
of the legendary Atlantis. The Phoenician and other ancient navigators like
the Carthaginians, the Minoan Cretans and the Etruscans were the children
of Atlantis. They were the survivors of the Atlantean cataclysm who kept on
the ancient naval commerce that made both the glory and the immense wealth
of the luciferine empires.
16) riches in metals
The problem of the supplying of tin for the manufacture of
the enormous quantity of bronze that characterized the Bronze Age is far from
settled. Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin, with about 10% of the latter
metal, which is indeed quite rare and expensive. The tin mines of Kestel and
Goltepe in the Taurus Mts. of Turkey in fact date from the Bronze Age. But
they are far from a sufficient source, and fell far shorter than the hopeful
expectations of the archaeologists, who saw in them the possible solution
of the ancient riddle of the source of tin in antiquity.
The Spanish Tartessos, so often confused with the legendary
Tarshish that was the ancient supplier of tin according to the Bible
never produced a single pound of the crucial metal in antiquity. As
a matter of fact, the primeval Tarshish whence tin came in antiquity lay overseas,
in the Indian Ocean. Tartessos, its Spanish replica, was merely an artifice
of the clever Phoenicians in order to divert the potential competitors from
the true source of the precious metal (see item 15 above).
Likewise, the Cassiterides the legendary "islands
of tin" (kassiteros, in Greek) of Cornwall (England) was
only an alternative, far later source of supply of tin. The mines of Cornwall
were only discovered and activated by the Phoenicians at about the VI century
BC. This is far too late for the Bronze Age, which ended at about 1,000 BC
Herodotus (fl. 430 BC) had vaguely heard of the Cassiterides,
which he confused with Tartessos. Later writers applied the name to some smallish
islands off the coast of Spain or to the northeast coast of Spain, in the
region of Gades. But neither of these proved to be the actual source of tin,
and the Greco-Roman writers were not able to identify the true location of
the fabulous Cassiterides. The Cassiterides retained their legendary existence
even after the source of tin in Cornwall was positively identified.
The little that was known for certain of the Cassiterides
was that they lay "outside the Pillars of Hercules", precisely as
was the case of Atlantis. The Greek name of tin, kassiteros, derives
from the Dravida and Sanskrit kacita, meaning "white metal".
The fact that the European name of tin is Hindu demonstrates beyond reasonable
doubt the the Indian origin and provenience of the precious white metal.
Avienus makes a confused description of the locations of the
Cassiterides in his Ora Maritima (96f.). He places these mysterious
isles which he identifies with Gades and Tartessos, as well as the
Oestrymnid Islands near the Pillars of Hercules and the Sargasso Sea.
Both these places are intimately connected with the site of Atlantis. As a
matter of fact, the word oestrum, from which the Tin Islands derive
their name, means "fury", "hallucination".
And this etymon is merely the translation into Greek of the
name of the Moluccas, meaning the same thing in Dravida (malukku).
"Moluccas" was the name the ancient mariners gave to the Spice Islands
of Indonesia, because of the inebriating spices, herbs and hallucinogens produced
there. These drugs the Phoenicians, the Etruscans and the Minoans brought
to the Occident, along with the metals and gemstones and other similar exclusivities
of the fabulous Indian trade, which they resold at an exorbitant price.
It has been recently determined, through detailed chemical
analyses of several Egyptian mummies, that the drug traffic in antiquity was
quite widespread. It encompassed the Americas (coca, tobacco), the Indies
(hashish and opium) and the Near East (opium and heroine). These results were
obtained by a German team of experts, and are quite unassailable. We all know
how meticulous and competent the Germans are at this type of research. these
results are so unbelievable that they were questioned. But they could not
be refuted at all and, hence, must be accepted as real until someone is able
to refute them.
Avienus also identifies the Cassiterides with the site of
Mt. Cassius (or Argentarius). The silvery colour of this mountain derives,
according to him, from it being covered with tin, so often confused with silver
by the ancients. The poet also makes these islands the site of the Pillars
of Hercules and of the abode of the giant Geryon. Geryon was, as we all know,
the three-bodied giant killed by the Hero in his tenth labor. Now, Geryon
inhabited the island of Erytheia, which was located in the Orient, beyond
the ocean (Indian) and the Pillars of Hercules, at the very site of Atlantis
(see item 8 above).
As we show elsewhere, these legendary islands, so rich in
gold, silver and tin, were the same as the ones the Greek called by names
such as Argyre ("Silvery Islands") or Chryse ("Golden
Islands"). These islands were also called Chryse Chersonesos ("Peninsula
of Gold") or Cassia Chersonesos ("Peninsula of Tin").
For, in antiquity, islands and peninsulas ("near islands") were
vaguely confused. This golden peninsula and the nearby islands in question
were those of present day Indonesia. Indonesia is, even today, the greatest
supplier of tin and related metals, just as it was in remotest antiquity.
The Hindus called these fabled islands by names such as Saka-dvipa
("White Islands") or Suvarna-dvipa ("Golden Islands")
because of the metals (gold and tin, the white metal) they produced. In fact,
Saka-dvipa is described in the Puranas as extremely rich in precious
metals and gemstones. Its inhabitants were whites like the Pious Ethiopians
of Indonesia-Atlantis, as described by Pliny and Solinus and several other
Saka-dvipa is also characterized by having "a golden
lofty mountain whence the clouds arise that bring the rains" and another
one "that produces all the herbs and medicinal drugs". Now, the
Golden Mountain is Mt. Meru (or Sumeru) and the other one is the Silvery Mountain
(or Kumeru) which Avienus calls Mt. Argentarius (or Cassius). In Sanskrit,
the word Saka means both "white" (or "white metal")
and "medicinal drug", just as in the name of the Moluccas. So, we
see how the confusion of the two names originally arose.
Plato also relates the fact that Atlantis was immensely rich
in metals and gemstones, which the Atlanteans used lavishly in the decoration
of their temples and walls. In one passage of his Critias (114 d) the
Greek philosopher writes on the Atlanteans that:
"Their island itself produced most of what was
required by them for the uses of life. In the first place they dug out of
the earth whatever [metals and gemstones] that are to be found there, solid
They also produced that which is now only a name, orichalcum,
but which was them a reality that was dug out of the earth in many parts of
the continent, and which was, in those days, more precious than any other
metal other than gold."
In another passage (Critias116b) Plato tells how the
triple walls of Atlantis were clad one with bronze the other with tin and
the inner one, which encompassed the citadel "flashed with the red light
of orichalc". The true nature of orichalc has been endlessly debated
by experts of all sorts since antiquity. The flashy golden metal can only
be brass, an alloy of copper and zinc of very difficult synthesis whose technology
would only be mastered again in modern times.
The lavish use of metals by the Atlanteans extended to the
gold and the silver used with abundance in their temples and palaces. Alexander,
in his fabled conquest of the Indies, had the opportunity of seeing in person
the multitude of golden pillars quite like the ones the kings of Atlantis
used to inscribe their laws and edits. Proclus, a Neo-Platonic that commented
Plato's works, tells how Crantor, another Neo-Platonic, could still see,
in Egypt, the golden pillar that the priests of Sais showed to the tourists,
and which was inscribed with scripts telling the story of the lost continent.
Proclus also affirms that Atlantis' remains formed an
archipelago in the Outer Ocean, "beyond the Pillars of Hercules".
In brief, many traditions concur in the fact that Atlantis was immensely rich
in all sorts of metals and minerals such as gemstones, and particularly in
tin, gold and silver, which it furnished to all nations of the ancient world.
Traditions such as those of Solomon's fabulous mines in Ophir, or of heroes
such as Ulysses and the Argonauts seeking the fabled golden realms of Phaeacia
and Aiaia are no more than dim recollections of Atlantis, distorted and magnified
to impossible limits by the ancient bards. So are the ancient traditions such
as the bronzy walls of Hades, the golden and silvery mountains of the Far
Orient, and the Eldorado of the Conquistadors, who mistook the Americas for
the Indies, the true site of Atlantis-Eden.
Some of these golden realms are sunken cities like the flashy
submarine realm of Poseidon (Aigaia), or the likewise superb golden
palace of Triton, in the bottom of the Ocean. Others were explicitly submerged
by the Flood, as was the case of golden Troy and its bronzy walls or the one
of Atlantis itself. Finally, most were remote islands of the Far East, located
beyond the Pillars of Hercules. Such was the case of the rosy Erytheia of
Geryon and of the mysterious islands mentioned by Proclus, who equated them
with the fabled remains of Atlantis.
In every case it is possible to show as we do elsewhere
that all these half-sunken realms turned into islands are indeed the
same as those of Indonesia. More exactly they also include the Moluccas (or
Spice Islands or Golden Islands), as well as the nearby lands of South and
Southeast Asia. These forlorn islands are, moreover, the same as the Elysium
or Isles of the Blest, the paradisial Hades where our dead Atlantean ancestors
spend their eternal life in joyful banquets, games, dances, hunts and anglings
This dismal Paradise was yet the same the Egyptians called Punt (or Amenti
or Duat, etc.).
17) superior science and technology
The only hard evidence given by Plato of a superior technology
utilized by the Atlanteans consists in the use of orichalc, the mysterious
metal which "flashed like fire" and which they used to clad the
walls of their citadel. As we adduced above (see item 16) orichalc
or aurichalcum, that is "golden copper", as Pliny wrote is
brass, an alloy of copper and zinc of a beautiful golden colour and superior
The manufacture of brass was a technological feat that could
only be repeated in modern times due to the difficulties inherent in the process.
The fact that the Atlanteans could mass produce this alloy is a direct proof
of their superior science and technology. So is, for that matter, the fact
that they could mass produce metals and gemstones in quantity sufficient to
supply the ancient nations with these items so difficult to procure and to
process in the primitive conditions that were then prevalent.
The proofs of a superior science and technology possessed
by the Atlanteans are of a twofold nature: traditional and factual. In the
traditional account we have the legends and myths like those on wonderful
flying machines like the vimanas and the vahanas of the Ramayana
and the Mahabharata. These holy books talk of airships capable of carrying
entire armies; of weapons (agniastras) that can only have been firearms
and of explosives that, like the atomic weapons, were able to wipe out entire
They tell of talking machines capable of making forecasts
and of allowing the viewing of distant persons. They also speak of teleportation,
of telepathy, of levitation, of transmutation of the metals, of the effortless
erection of megalithic buildings and structures such as the Great Pyramid.
Such "magical means" bespeak of a superior science and technology.
Furthermore, those sacred traditions even suggest the use of genetic engineering
to create the domesticated plants and animals, if not a sub-species of men
intended for specific purposes like that of "serving the gods".
Superior metallic alloys such as stainless steel, bronze and
brass ("orichalc") have existed from remotest antiquity. And no
one has been able so far to give a satisfactory account of the epoch of their
invention or of their place of origin. Where else but in Atlantis, the true
site of the Garden of Eden?
Crucial inventions like the domesticated plants and animals,
the alphabet, scripture, paper, gunpowder, metal-casting and smelting, brewing
and distillation, medicinal drugs, electroplating, lenses, telescopes and
eyeglasses, stone cutting and shaping, and a myriad such "magical creations"
apparently came to us from nowhere. In the official accounts, they came from
an unlikely "China". But China was itself civilized, as were most
ancient nations, by the Hindus. The Hindus, in turn, claim to have been civilized
by the Atlantean Nagas. Are they all indeed telling a lie or the truth?
And why would the ancients all be lying?
In our opinion, the greatest achievement of the ancient Atlanteans
lay in the social and metaphysical sciences: Religion, Philosophy, Ethics,
Law, Mythology, Psychology and so on. Whoever studies in depth the true scope
of Greek philosophy as expounded by philosophers such as Plato, Pythagoras,
Aristotle, Epicurus, Zeno, Thales, Anaxagoras and several others will
not fail to realize that their esoteric doctrines all root in the Hindu darshanas
The profundity of these Indian sciences so far surpass the
ones of the Occident that it is only as the result of being blinded by ethnocentrism
that our experts have failed to realize the fact that our religions and our
philosophical systems all came to us from the Orient. Now, this could only
have happened in the dawn of times, precisely as our Holy Books and our sacred
traditions maintain. All these "Hindu" doctrines, in turn, root
in ancient treatises ascribed to legendary authors of antediluvian times which
can be none other than those of Atlantis itself.
Religion too perhaps the greatest of all creations
of Man can only have originated in Paradise, that is, in Atlantis itself.
This is easy to see not only in the ancient traditions of its revelation by
gods or angels or superior beings (Atlanteans), but also by the fact that
all religions stem from a single source, the Urreligion (or "Primeval
Religion") envisaged by certain specialists of genius such as Mircea
Eliade and René Guénon.
Mythology is yet another Atlantean creation that provides
the archetypes and the exemplary models of behavior and mentality that we
all follow rather blindly and instinctively during our lifetime. Most myths
deal with Atlantis and Atlantean matters, and enmesh serendipitously with
the eschatological doctrines of our religions.
Where else but in destroyed Atlantis could myths such as those
of the Flood or that of the Millennium and the rebirth of the Celestial Jerusalem
(Atlantis) have originated? Who else but the Atlanteans could have diffused
myths such as these to the whole world, including the remotest corners of
the Amazon jungle and those of Indonesia and South Asia?
The fact is that all supreme inventions the ones that
turned Man into something more than an ape or a ravening beast came
to us from Atlantis, in the dawn of times. The one invention which allowed
all others was that of agriculture, the supreme legacy of the ancient Atlanteans
to us. It was agriculture that allowed the fixation of Man to the ground,
and guaranteed the availability of food with far less labor than that required
in hunting and gathering foodstuffs.
Agriculture created the surplus time for thinking and for
the development of inventions and creations that allowed us to rise over the
other beasts of the field. But when we talk of agriculture and of animal domestication
we cannot forget that these activities were only rendered possible by the
artificial creation of species and strains of a very particular nature. Such
developments require the use of advanced genetic engineering quite like or
even superior to the modern ones.
With its peculiar arrogance, modern science has been utterly
incapable of creating even a single example of domesticated plant or animal
beyond the ones we inherited from the dawn of times, the epoch of our Atlantean
forefathers. Many of these plants and animals in particular the dog,
the pig, the goat, maize, wheat, barley, cotton, coconuts, pineapples, yam,
potatoes, bananas, grapes and many others existed both in the Old and
in the New World.
Moreover, many of these responded by the same name on both
sides of the world. Who else but the Atlantean Sons of God could have created
them and brought them to the other distant nations of the world? This is precisely
what the holiest traditions of all peoples claim, the world over. Why would
they all lie such a crucial issue as this one? Moreover, when we seek the
true place of origin of all these magnificent creations of men or gods, we
verify that they have been always present and apparently came from nowhere.
The specialists are hard put to tell the date and the place
of their origin, and their researches push them all, evermore, towards the
Far East, the true place of origin of agriculture and of civilization. Other
sciences that clearly prove the existence of Atlantis are those of Astronomy
and Geodesy. Some ancient maps of the world, such as those of Piri Reis and
of Oronteus Finaeus, embody an uncanny knowledge of the whole world that could
not have been obtained at all without a sophisticate system of cartography
And this, in turn, requires an advanced knowledge of spherical
trigonometry, of logarithms, of projective geometry and of related sciences.
Moreover, this precision mapping requires the use of very accurate instruments
like chronometers, telescopes, sextants, armillary spheres, and so on, for
the determination of the stellar coordinates and of the position of the observer
at the time of observation.
The creation of such instruments again requires an advanced
science and technology in fields such as optics, metallurgy and materials
science. Who else but the Atlanteans could have possessed this technology
so early in time? The same amazing precision and superior science obtains
in the case of Astronomy.
The ancients knew but clearly lacked the capability
for having discovered such facts about the two moons of Mars, the twelve
of Jupiter, the ten of Saturn. Moreover, they knew of the heliocentricity
of the Solar System, of the nine planets, and the rings of Saturn, as well
as of the fact that Sirius, the largest star in the sky, has a invisible twin
of extremely high density.
These and many other astronomical facts can only be observed
with very large telescopes and very refined observational techniques. Such
instruments and techniques could only have been developed by the Atlanteans
and by no other nation, barring extra-terrestrials and angelic powers.
The ancients were also capable of calculating and effecting
stellar alignments of an amazing precision. Their accuracy sometimes exceeds
what modern astronomers can do, even with the best of computer programs. They
had an almost superior ability to predict astronomical dates and ephemerides
both in the distant past and in the distant future. These dates they unequivocally
indicated by means of accurate alignments embedded in the Great Pyramid and
in other artifacts that many traditions attribute to the Atlanteans.
Likewise, the Great Pyramid also embodies such geodetical
measurements as the lengths of the Polar Meridian and the Equatorial Circle
to a precision that favorably compares to those obtained recently by geodetical
satellites. We discuss these matters in detail in our book on Atlantis, to
which we refer the interested reader.
18) terraced mountain cultivation.
As we said above (see item 17), the greatest
of human inventions was that of Agriculture. Agriculture allowed the fixation
of Man to the soil and, hence, the rise of civilization and the development
of all arts and sciences. But, exclusive of an slash-and-burn agriculture
that does not allow this fixation, some means to renew the fertility of the
soil in a permanent fashion had yet to be found.
In the modern world, this is achieved by the chemical synthesis
of fertilizers or, in rare instances, by composting the residues of animals
and plants. In the ancient world, the renovation of the soil was insured by
two basic processes. The first one consisted in taking advantage of the yearly
floods of rivers such as the Nile, the Tigris, the Euphrates, the Indus, the
Ganges and the Irrawaddy The floodwaters brought the silt that was deposited
in the fields, renewing the soil and irrigating the plantation.
This process is still widely used in the Far East, where it
probably originated in Atlantean times. The other process utilizes volcanoes
to insure the renovation of the soil. Volcanic cinders are immensely fertile.
Volcanic fly ash descends with the rains, covering the soil and fertilizing
it. Such was the reason the ancient civilizations often arose vicinally to
volcanoes: in Italy, in Peru, in Mexico, in Crete and, particularly, in Indonesia.
Indeed, it seems that volcanic-based agriculture developed earlier than flood-based
As all things indicate, the first site of all to utilize this
advanced technique was Indonesia, the true site of the Garden of Eden and
of the origin of civilization. Indonesia is the most volcanically active region
in the world. Even today Indonesia derives its peerless fertility from the
many volcanoes that make both its glory and its periodic doom.
However, for the volcanic cinders to be really useful, another
clever invention had to be implemented: that of terraced agriculture. Volcanic
regions such as Indonesia are mountainous. In mountains, the rains tend to
wash down the soil, preventing their agricultural use. The use of terraces,
however, prevents this down-washing, conserving both the water and the fertilizers
of the agricultural soil.
The rain water is stored in dams at the top of the mountains,
and is made to wind its way along the terraces, where the plantation is done.
The result is an enormous production which often yields two and even three
crops a year. This feature was pointed out by Plato in his description of
Atlantis. If the great philosopher was not lying shamelessly, we are led to
conclude that irrigated, terraced agriculture was indeed an Atlantean invention.
Terraced agriculture is to be found, even today, in most areas
of Atlantean influence where volcanoes exist: the Indonesian islands, Japan,
China, Southern Italy (Etna, Vesuvius), Crete (Thera), the Peruvian Andes,
Mexico, etc.. The tradition of terraced agriculture goes hand in hand with
the one of stepped pyramids. Indeed, stepped pyramids represent the Holy Mountain,
itself a volcano whose slopes were terraced for agricultural reasons.
This Holy Mountain is no other than Mt. Atlas and, more exactly,
Mt. Meru. Mt. Meru is, as we already said, the sacred mountain of the Hindus
and the Buddhists of India, Indonesia and the Far East in general. The legend
of Mount Meru subsumes the tragedy of Atlantis. Attracted to that volcanic
peak like flies to honey, the Atlanteans there met their doom eventually.
When their volcano exploded, killing them en masse, and extinguishing
their formidably advanced civilization, the Atlanteans disappeared from the
scene. But they left behind their legend, which is as undying as the smile
of the Cheshire cat.
The tradition of terraced agriculture symbolized by the stepped
pyramids is encountered even in nations that had no volcanoes and, even less,
terrace based agriculture. Such was the case of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Their
fascination with these two features can only be the result of an intensive
Atlantean influence. The legendary Civilizing Heroes of these nations
personages such as Thoth, Osiris, Dercetto and the Oannès were
indeed Atlanteans mythified as gods and identified with the Nagas (or Titans)
The first Egyptian pyramid, the one of Zozer, was a stepped
pyramid which corresponds in both shape and ritual function with the ones
of Indonesia (Borobudur) and Southeast Asia (Angkor Vat, Angkor Thom, Bakong,
etc.). As we see, there can be hardly any doubt that the tradition of pyramid
building derives from that of terraced agriculture and that both traditions
originated in Indonesia, the true site of Atlantis, of Eden, and of the origin
of Agriculture. How else could the tradition of terraced agriculture have
reached Egypt and Babylon, where it never existed but from the
Far East, where it was developed? Whence else could it have reached both the
Old and the New Worlds so early in time?
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon one of the Seven Wonders
of the Ancient World were no other thing than a terraced mountain created
artificially. The Babylonian ziggurats (or "temple-mountains")
were indeed stepped pyramids representing the same idea. The same thing also
obtains in Egypt and in the Americas.
Queen Hatshepsut also built her replica of the "Garden
of Lebanon", which is none but the Garden of Eden replicated by Queen
Semiramis. King Solomon, in keeping with this ancient tradition, also built
his own copy of the Garden of Eden (primeval "Lebanon") near his
palace, in a legendary Jerusalem that never was indeed, except in the Atlantean
tradition, where it is just an alter name for Atlantis' capital city.
The Egyptians often represented such "gardens" by
an effigy of Osiris planted with corn, his gift to humanity. Osiris, the dying-resurrecting
god of the Holy Mountain was, like Atlas, considered to be the Pillar of Heaven
(Tet). Indeed, the Egyptian Tale the Two Brothers is an almost
verbatim replica of the one of Atlas and Gadeiros, the many-named co-rulers
of Atlantis according to Plato. The two brothers contend, and one kills the
other, who later resurrects from among the dead. As we see, this duel corresponds
to the one of Osiris and Seth, as well as its many counterparts. But all these
are indeed allegories of the War of Atlantis, where the two brothers are the
"Greeks" and the Atlanteans, who fight to the bitter end and to
their own mutual destruction.
19) o-blood group
One of the surest of all genetic traits connecting two different
populational groups is that of blood types. More recent research has led to
genotypes that are even more efficient for that purpose. A global project,
is now in course to determine the genotypes of the diverse human groups, and
in a few years we will be able to determine with certainty who's who and
who derived from whom. But, in the meanwhile we must be content with far less
What we have personally been able to determine so far is that
O Blood Type is typical of what we may call the "Red Races" of Atlantis.
This type of blood is characteristic of the red races of the Americas; of
the Canarian Guanches; of the Basques of France and Spain, of the Scandinavians,
of the Celts of the British Isles and the Atlantic coasts of France, as well
as of certain peoples of Polynesia and Indonesia.
This distribution of O Blood Type strongly suggests that these
peoples entered Europe from Indonesia, via the Indian and the Atlantic Oceans,
precisely as legends such as those of Celts, the Romans, and the Greeks claim.
Moreover, this distribution also suggests an inroad from the Indies towards
the Far East, reaching all the way to the Americas, via Melanesia and Polynesia.
In other words, it seems that the origin of this O-blooded population was
primeval Indonesia and the sunken lands of the region, the very site of Atlantis.
Plato could not, of course, have foretold such a modern development.
But it is far more than a coincidence that the ancient "Reds" or
"Royals" (Kshatryas or Rajputs = "Sons of Kings")
claimed to have a different blood than commoners, the so-called "blue-blood".
Perhaps this is yet another legacy of the Atlantean science degenerated into
a legendary tradition on the existence of a superior race of different blood
destined to rule the others.
Accordingly, we marked the entries on our Checklist on this
issue, as follows: Doubtful ():
Plato, Thera/Crete, Sunken Atlantic Island, Antarctica, Tartessos, for we
do not yet have no way of determining the blood types of these populations.
However, this is a definite future possibility with fossil studies of mitochondrial
Positive possibilities ()
are: Scandinavia, the Incas, the Mayas, the African Northwest (Berbers), Celtiberia
and certain white populations of Polynesia and the Indies. The only definite
in our Checklist is Schliemann's Troy, in Hisarlik (Turkey), as the blood
types of Eastern Europe and the Near East are characteristically of the A-type,
a sure indicator of an Asiatic origin. Of course, this fact likewise tends
to exclude certain proposed locations which we did not list, such as the Bosporus
and the Caucasus, as well as sites farther east, both in Europe and Asia.